The extraction yield was measured and expressed as a percentage (

The extraction yield was measured and expressed as a percentage (%). All extracts were dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) Tariquidar and stored at −20 °C for further analyses. Total polyphenol content (TPC) was determined according to the method of Singleton and Rossi (1965) with some modifications. An appropriately diluted sample (50 μl) was mixed with 25 μl of 1 N Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. The mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature for 5 min. Then, 100 μl of a saturated sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

solution (0.57 M) was added to the mixture. The mixture was subsequently brought to a final volume of 250 μl, using distilled water. The absorbance was read at 760 nm (Bio-Rad Model 680 microplate reader, California, USA) after a 2 h reaction time. A standard calibration curve of gallic acid (0–0.2 mg/ml) was plotted.

Results were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dried extract. Total flavonoid content (TFC) was measured by a modified aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, described by Liu et al. (2008). Sample (100 μl) was mixed with 10 μl of 5% sodium nitrite (NaNO2), and incubated for 5 min before the addition of 10 μl of 10% aluminium chloride (AlCl3). After 6 min, 100 μl of 1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were added to the mixture. The reaction mixture was subsequently diluted to a volume of 250 μl, using distilled water. The absorbance of the mixture was read at 510 nm. A standard calibration curve of rutin (0–0.2 mg/ml) was plotted. The results were expressed as see more mg rutin equivalents (RE)/g dried extract. Total carotenoid content (TCC) was measured spectrophotometrically, as described by Khoo, Ismail, Mohd-Esa, and Idris (2008). It is recommended that a wavelength 5-Fluoracil research buy of 450 nm be utilised

for the measurement of carotenoids in fruit and vegetables (Khoo et al., 2008). No prior sample preparation was required and the absorbance of appropriately diluted sample was measured at 450 nm. A standard calibration curve of β-carotene (0–0.2 mg/ml) was plotted. All results were expressed in terms of mg of β-carotene equivalents (BE)/g dried extract. The ascorbic acid content (AA) was measured according to the method of Amin and Cheah (2003). Five hundred microgrammes of the extract were dissolved in 50% acetonitrile and then filtered through a 0.45 μm nylon membrane filter prior to analyses in the HPLC system (Series 1100, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, USA). Separation of ascorbic acid was achieved on a reverse phase Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (5 μm × 250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D), using acetonitrile:water (50:50) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Sample injection volume was 20 μl. The compound was detected through a diode array detector at 254 nm. Results were calculated, based on a calibration curve of l-ascorbic acid (0–1 mg/ml).

The materials used

in a screening method were as follows:

The materials used

in a screening method were as follows: FOS from chicory, raffinose, stachyose, pectin from apple, wheat-bran, carrageenan (Sigma-Aldrich Japan Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), chlorella (Chlorella Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), starch from wheat, glucan, agar (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan), onion, kelp, Japanese mustard spinach, arrowroot, starch from arrowroot (purchased from a market), JBO, and JBOVS. The variety of JBO used in this study was Fuyuougi 2. The JBOs themselves buy CHIR-99021 were obtained from the Kanagawa Agricultural Technology Center (Kanagawa, Japan). The JBOs were planted in soil taken from the farm at the Center for about 3 months at the mature stage, and the resulting JBOVS were collected from the JBO cavity when the JBO was harvested. Male 10-week-old BALB/cA mice (CLEA Japan, A-1210477 in vitro Inc., Tokyo, Japan) were housed at 23–25 °C

and 50–60% relative humidity with a 12 h light-dark cycle. The mice were fed CLEA Rodent Diet CA-1 (CLEA Japan, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). Fresh fecal sources were collected from the mice. The collected fecal sources (1%) were suspended anaerobically in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (8 g NaCl, 0.2 g KCl, 2.9 g Na2HPO4·12H2O, and 0.2 g KH2PO4 per litre distilled water, pH 7.0) with 0.5% (w/v) of each substrate. The PBS solutions containing 5 mg/L resazurin and 1 mg/L cysteine hydrochloride were used to provide an indication of the amount of oxygen in the medium and act as an oxygen scavenger, respectively. These solutions were pretreated with pure CO2 (>99.9%) gas and autoclaved before being mixed with the fecal sources. The substrates examined were from the above-mentioned list of materials, as well as a control (no addition of substrate). All substrates were freeze-dried and crushed to a powder by using an Automill

machine (Tokken, Inc., Chiba, Japan). The PBS solutions including fecal source and the substrate were purged with N2 gas to allow for any residual oxygen to be displaced from the headspace. The suspensions were incubated at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions in an incubator without shaking. Resazurin remains colourless under anaerobic conditions and turns red in the presence of oxygen, PD184352 (CI-1040) and great care was taken to ensure that the experiments were conducted under anaerobic conditions to prevent the solution turning red. The suspensions were collected after 12 h incubation and then centrifuged. The supernatants of the centrifuged samples were used as samples for NMR measurements. The experiments (i.e., in vitro incubation) were performed 3–5 times for each substrate and the control. All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Research Committees of RIKEN Yokohama Research Institute and Yokohama City University. Animals were kept in environmentally controlled animal facilities at the Yokohama City University.

Flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers were found to inhibit more effici

Flavan-3-ol monomers and dimers were found to inhibit more efficiently LDL oxidation than trimers and tetramers ( Plumb, De Pascual-Teresa, Santos-Buelga, Cheynier, & Williamson, 1998). According to some authors, the presence of prodelphinidin increases the antioxidant capacity of PAs due to the increase in the reactive hydroxyl number (Rice-Evans et al., 1996). In this study, high amounts of %P were observed and this probably contributed to the total antioxidant capacity observed, although this parameter has not been associated directly with antioxidant analysis. Esterification

of position 3 with acid is another important factor that INK1197 solubility dmso positively affects the scavenging capacity of grape PAs (Rice-Evans et al., 1996). This correlation was not found in our study probably due to the

low concentrations of %G and GC observed in the wine samples. Studies on flavan-3-ols as target compounds in research involving the antioxidant activity of wines are important since it has been proposed that these compounds can react with biomolecules and thus modify their metabolism and functions (Galati, Lin, Sultan & O’Brien, 2006). According to some authors the main function of catechins as antioxidants in the organism is the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (Plumb et al., 1998), which can promote an increase in total antioxidant capacity in the organism and, as a consequence, improve the antioxidant defence system and reduce damage caused by these reactive species in the organism. Raza and John (2007) suggested that catechin and their derivatives may PLX4032 price affect the metabolism of GSH in vitro, by conjugation of these compounds with GSH and through inhibition of enzymes such as GST and GPx. One report suggested the conjugation of EGCG with GSH under in vivo conditions ( Galati et al., 2006). In Urease conclusion, this study presents the

free flavan-3-ol and PA composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the wines Cabernet Franc, Sangiovese and Syrah, 2006 and 2007 vintages, from a new wine growing region in the south of Brazil. Until now, these analyses have never been studied in wines of this region. The quantitative method using HPLC-DAD–MS allowed the precise identification and quantification of the monomers catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate, and the dimers B1 and B2 along with their adducts after phloroglucinolysis, giving access to the nature of the terminal and extension units of the PAs. Flavan-3-ol and PA concentrations were in line with those reported in the literature from the most renowned regions of premium wine production; the composition of these compounds correlated positively with the in vitro antioxidant activity of the wine samples, with differences among the varieties and vintages studied being evident. These interesting results further support the potential of the region to produce high quality wines.

Second, intakes were always estimated based on short-term food co

Second, intakes were always estimated based on short-term food consumption surveys, such as 24-h records (EFSA, 2006). We also considered the study of Ritter et al. (2011b) that modeled intakes of PCBs in the UK population using the same model that we used in this study.

The peak intake in our study occurred 5 years later in Australia compared to the UK and the values of the peak intake for the Australian population are generally lower than those in the UK by factors of up to 25 for PCB-180 (Table 2). The lower intakes of PCBs in the Australian population likely reflect the lower use and contamination by PCBs in various matrices of Australia than in other places worldwide (Kalantzi et al., 2001, Meijer et al., 2003 and Pozo et al., 2006). A faster reduction trend in PCB intake in Australia relative to this website the UK is also indicated (Table 2). In our study biomonitoring data were obtained from measured POP concentrations in pooled serum samples. Pooled samples

have several advantages relative to individual samples, and also some limitations (Heffernan et al., 2013). One important property in the current context selleck screening library is that pooled samples reflect the arithmetic mean concentration of individual samples in the pool (Heffernan et al., 2013). In the case of PCBs in the UK population, the biomonitoring data were categorized by age and the geometric mean was calculated for different age groups. To characterize the bias due to geometric versus arithmetic means, we estimated the geometric mean of PCB concentrations for the Australian population.

The procedure is described in detail in Supplementary material, and followed the approach recommended by Aylward et al. (2014). Briefly, we used the degree Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 of variability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey biomonitoring data in 2003 and 2004 (NHANES, 2005) to estimate the variability in the Australian population. The model was fit to the estimated geometric mean of the biomonitoring data and modeled intakes and intrinsic elimination half-lives are listed in Table S6 (see Supplementary material). When fitting the model using the geometric mean, no bias was observed for the intrinsic elimination half-lives, but estimates for peak intakes were lower than when using the arithmetic mean by a factor of around 2. Hence the difference between intake estimates for the UK and Australian populations is even larger, especially for PCB-180 differing by 2 orders of magnitude. Estimates of intakes from model fitting using the geometric mean indicated an even larger discrepancy between modeled intakes and empirical measurements from exposure pathway studies. We reconstructed intakes of the PCBs and OCPs by fitting the Ritter model to biomonitoring data.

10) Obviously, the attempt to capture this statistical peculiari

10). Obviously, the attempt to capture this statistical peculiarity has created collateral distortions. The DSTP predicts a Simon effect on mean RT that is too small and errors that are too fast in the compatible condition. The SSP predicts errors that are too fast in all conditions. An inspection of the CAFs (see Appendix E) reveals a surprising failure CDK phosphorylation of the DSTP to explain accuracy dynamics across conditions. CAF shapes are better predicted by the SSP. Alternative model versions are penalized by the same problems highlighted in the Eriksen task, and do not provide a better fit quality compared to original versions (indicated by higher G2 and BIC statistics). The alternative

DSTP overestimates the skew of RT distributions in the compatible condition and generates a reversed Simon effect on mean RT. Tofacitinib The alternative SSP underestimates the range of accuracy values in the compatible condition, and the model predicts an inversion of RT moments between compatibility conditions only for the higher chroma values. In conclusion, none of the models evaluated

are able to fit the Simon data. On the basis of conceptual (e.g., Hommel, 2011 and Kornblum et al., 1990) and statistical (Pratte et al., 2010 and Speckman et al., 2008) differences, it has long been argued that different conflict tasks are likely to involve different components of processing. By concurrently investigating Piéron and Wagenmakers–Brown laws in Eriksen (Experiment 1) and Simon (Experiment 2) tasks, both at experimental and computational levels, we adopted a novel strategy to gain insight into decision-making in a conflicting environment. Our data identify strong processing similarities between tasks through three key findings. In both tasks, we found that (i) Piéron’s law holds for each S–R compatibility condition. (ii) Compatibility and color saturation Niclosamide combine additively, as revealed by Bayesian hypothesis testing. (iii) Wagenmakers–Brown’s law holds for color saturation, but is broken by the compatibility factor:

the incompatible mapping lowers the intercept of the linear law while leaving its slope constant. Altogether, those results provide evidence for a common model base between Eriksen and Simon tasks (see Burle, Spieser, Servant, & Hasbroucq, 2014, for electromyographic evidence supporting a similar conclusion). The recent findings of Stafford et al. (2011) suggest that the Stroop task may also belong to this common framework.7 The violation of Wagenmakers–Brown’s law by the compatibility factor strongly deviates from optimal predictions of a standard DDM. As an alternative account, we explored a new generation of diffusion models that incorporate selective attention mechanisms. Simulations of the SSP and the DSTP showed that the violation of Wagenmakers–Brown’s law by the compatibility factor was indeed predicted.

, 2011 and PEN, 2013) Completed syntheses of the PEN data have n

, 2011 and PEN, 2013). Completed syntheses of the PEN data have not yet been published, but preliminary analyses provide results that are consistent with those of earlier NTFP studies (Table 1). There have been many studies investigating ancient forest management practices for indigenous food plants in parts of Latin America (e.g., Levis et al., 2012 and Peters, 2000) and Southeast Asia (e.g., Michon, 2005 and Wiersum, 1997), but relatively few in Africa Ion Channel Ligand Library research buy (although see, e.g., Leakey et al., 2004 and Maranz

and Wiesman, 2003). Ancient harvesting, managed regeneration and cultivation have, for example, led to genetic changes in many Amazonian fruit trees and palms (Clement, 1989). These include abiu (Pouteria caimito), Amazon tree grape (Pourouma cecropiifolia), araza (Eugenia stipitata), biriba (Rollinia mucosa), peach

palm (Bactris INK1197 gasipaes) and sapota (Quararibea cordata). In Africa, rarer reports of changes in the characteristics of fruits attributed to ancient domestications include bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu) and safou (Dacryodes edulis) ( Leakey et al., 2004). Again, areca (Areca catechu), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and date (Phoenix dactylifera) are all palms for which changes in fruit size, in the proportion of useable product, and in the ability to be propagated, are attributed to long-past Anacetrapib human selections ( Clement, 1992), while an expanding list of global studies on ancient domestications includes many more food trees ( Clement, 2004). In perhaps the best studied case, in Amazonia, Amerindian populations declined after European colonial contact, which resulted in the erosion of the rich tree crop genetic heritage they had established (Clement, 1999). The effects of pre-Columbian forest management remain, however, including high density aggregations of useful trees close to ancient anthropogenic ‘dark earth’ soils (Clement and Junqueira, 2010) and in interfluvial regions (Levis et al., 2012), with Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) being

the most famous example ( Shepard and Ramirez, 2011). A review of molecular genetic studies ( Clement et al., 2010) suggested that current centres of genetic diversity in fruit and nut trees are generally located in the centre of the Amazon Basin along the major white water rivers where large pre-Colombian human populations developed, while the periphery of the basin has had an important role in domestication origins. This suggests that subtle differences in the focus of management programmes for conservation and genetic improvement may be required in different geographic regions of the Amazon, and indicates the importance of germplasm exchange and dispersal during ancient domestication processes.

4 ± 5 4%, n = 4), p < 0 01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs etha

4 ± 5.4%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + eticlopride + KRGE60

group (10.2 ± 2.5%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + SCH23390 + KRGE60 group (27.4 ± 6.1%, n = 4), p > 0.05] ( Fig. 3B). Taken together, these results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of KRGE during EW were mediated by D2R in the CeA. Plasma CORT levels, a hormonal marker of anxiety in rats, were measured with an RIA to confirm the anxiolytic C59 wnt ic50 effects of KRGE. Plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in ethanol-treated control rats (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) than in saline-treated controls [F (3, 13) = 18.2, p < 0.001; ethanol-treated control group (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) vs. saline-treated control group (318.6 ± 57.3, n = 5), p < 0.001]. Also in agreement with the behavioral data, the administration of both doses of KRGE significantly inhibited EW-related increases in plasma CORT levels [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE 20 mg/kg group (473.2 ± 131.6, n = 4), p < 0.001; ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE 60 mg/kg

group (350.0 ± 80.7, n = 4), p < 0.001] ( Fig. 4). The HPLC analyses revealed significant decreases in the levels of DA and DOPAC in the CeA during EW. Treatment with KRGE dose-dependently reversed these deficiencies (Table 1) demonstrating that the anxiolytic effects of KRGE are mediated by the amygdaloid dopaminergic system. Western blot analyses revealed a reduction in the expression Methamphetamine of TH proteins in the CeA of ethanol-treated controls compared to saline-treated controls [F (2, 9) = 24.6, p < 0.001; saline-treated control

group (100%, n = 4) vs. ethanol-treated control group (36.2 ± 8.3%, CP673451 n = 4), p < 0.001]. However, the administration of KRGE (60 mg/kg) prevented these reductions [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE60 (95.2 ± 23.4%, n = 4), p < 0.001] ( Fig. 5). The real-time PCR analyses revealed that EW significantly decreased the expression of TH mRNA in the VTA [F (2, 9) = 8.6, p < 0.01; saline-treated control group (100%, n = 4) vs. ethanol-treated control group (60.6 ± 10.0%, n = 4), p < 0.01]. However, the expression of TH mRNA in the CeA was spared (data not shown). Similar to protein expression in the CeA, KRGE (60 mg/kg) prevented the reduction of TH mRNA expression in the VTA during EW [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE 60 mg/kg group (90.3 ± 22.2%, n = 4), p < 0.05] ( Fig. 6). Consistent with previous findings, the present study demonstrated that rats undergoing EW exhibit anxiety-like behavior as they spent less time in the open arms of the EPM [7] and [18]. The behavioral testing also revealed that both the 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg doses of KRGE significantly increased the time spent in the open arms, which reflects the anxiolytic effects of KRGE. The anxiety-reducing behavioral effects of KRGE were supported by biochemical evidence showing that KRGE inhibited plasma CORT secretion.

The prepared ligand of compound 1 was docked to the intasome acti

The prepared ligand of compound 1 was docked to the intasome active site as guided by an appropriately generated protomol. The modeling was validated by screening a ligand set for compound 1 and a number of known anti-HIV integrase inhibitors and it was able to recognize all of the active compounds, including compound 1, as those with significantly high total scores. All HIV-1 isolates (Gao et al., 1994, Gao et al., 1998, Jagodzinski et al., 2000, Michael et al., 1999, Vahey et al., 1999, Abimiku Fludarabine supplier et al., 1994, Owen et al., 1998 and Daniel et al., 1985), MT-4 cells, pNL4-3 plasmid DNA (Adachi et al., 1986), HeLa-CD4-LTR-βgal cells

(Kimpton and Emerman, 1992), molecular clones for HIV-1 integrase mutations (Reuman et al., 2010), and Sup-T1 cells (Smith et al., 1984) were obtained from the NIH AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program. Integrase-pBluescript was obtained from the HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI, NIH. Other materials were purchased as follows: GeneTailor Site-Directed Mutagenesis System and High Fidelity Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase

(Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA); PCR primers (Operon Biotechnologies, Germantown, MD), pBluescript SK(+) cloning vector Selleckchem LBH589 and XL10-Gold Ultracompetent cells (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA); Plasmid Miniprep and Gel Extraction Kits (Qiagen, Valencia, CA); restriction enzymes AgeI and SalI (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA); Rapid DNA Ligation Kits (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). Fresh human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and used in antiviral assays Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II as previously described (Kortagere et al., 2012 and Ptak et al., 2008). Inhibition of HIV-1 replication was measured based on the reduction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in the culture supernatants using a microtiter plate-based RT reaction (Buckheit and Swanstrom, 1991 and Ptak et al., 2010). Cytotoxicity was determined using the tetrazolium-based dye, MTS (CellTiter®96, Promega). Compound 1 was

solubilized in DMSO to yield 80 mM stock solutions, which were stored at −20 °C until the day of drug susceptibility assay setup and used to generate fresh working drug dilutions. The integrase inhibitors, raltegravir and elvitegravir, were included to study cross-resistance. AZT was a positive control compound. CPE inhibition assays were performed as described previously (Adachi et al., 1986). The wild-type parental virus used for this study was the HIV-1 molecular clone HIV-1 NL4-3. Stocks of the virus were prepared by transfection of pNL4-3 plasmid DNA into HeLa-CD4-LTR-βgal cells. Molecular clones for HIV-1 integrase mutations were prepared by transfection into 293T cells (see below) followed by expansion in Sup-T1 cells. Integrase mutations for these viruses were confirmed by sequencing following stock production.

As the first recorded mine spill event in the catchment, delineat

As the first recorded mine spill event in the catchment, delineation of its geochemical footprint was not complicated by historic contamination. Downstream spatial patterns of trace metal/metalloid concentrations, specifically As, Cr, and Cu, revealed that the transport and deposition of contaminated particles during the spill did not follow the Selleckchem Cobimetinib typical downstream decreasing pattern observed along historically contaminated

rivers. Rather, the downstream patterns varied between the elements and exhibited complex spatial trends along the channel. Much like Graf (1990)’s observation of the Puerco River of New Mexico (USA), the trends are likely to reflect local geomorphic and human-made factors, including the influx of sediment from tributaries, variations in shear stress and stream power as a result of varying channel form, local dams that capture fine-sediment, and the localised erosion of bank materials, affected by cattle activity. Hydraulic sorting, dilution, and storage may have also played a role with learn more regards to Cu within the first 10 km of the channel, producing an abrupt downstream decrease in Cu concentrations. The data suggests that the transport and depositional processes responsible for dispersal of contaminated particles released from instantaneous tailings spills differ from those documented for mine contaminated rivers impacted

over long-periods of time. Additional studies are needed to assess how local controls affect overall trends in contaminant concentrations and why such marked differences in dispersal were observed

between the elements. The inference drawn from this single spill of ∼447 Ml of contaminated water is that, while its short-term effects were toxic to aquatic fauna, no serious legacy associated with channel and floodplain sediments is apparent. This finding suggests that the cumulative impacts from metal pollution and its storage within alluvial sediments is a far more crucial problem with respect to protecting the environment. Depending Sirolimus ic50 on the contaminant in question, small, but frequent depositions of contaminants over extended historical timeframes will likely pose greatest long-term risk. Finally, this study details a method and approach that could be applied in other locations where a need exists for rapid environmental assessment of mine spills in remote locations. The approach demonstrated is especially appropriate where practical outcomes are required, in this case the suitability of land for cattle grazing. Arguably, these types of locations and scenarios should form the focus of significant future research on the impact and risks associated with contamination of water from mining. Such knowledge is needed to better monitor and protect the environment, before these last vestiges of wilderness are denuded by human activities.

Some studies on the western Alps, for example, show that repeated

Some studies on the western Alps, for example, show that repeated prescribed burning with a short fire return

interval may have negative effects on fauna ( Lemonnier-Darcemont, 2003 and Lyet et al., 2009), and favour alien vegetation encroachment in the short-term ( Lonati et al., 2009). Fire has been a driver of landscape evolution and a mirror of human activities in the Alpine region. This review paper is intended to assist in creating and shaping the future through understanding fire history of the Alps and its fire traditions, as well as its specificities. Due to vulnerability of high mountain environments, the Alpine vegetation can be used as an indicator for global change and climate warming in particular (Pauli et al., 2003). For example, the this website advent of a new generation of large wildfires at the Alpine belt could mirror a more general trend towards increasing global warming. The climate warming recorded in the Alpine region from 1890 to 2000 results in double the one assessed at global level (Böhm et al., 2001); the environmental impact brought by a further increase of air temperature might lead to very serious consequences, e.g., affecting the water cycle, the occurrence of avalanches, floods and landslides, the ecological heritage, Navitoclax the vertical shift of the tree line (Grace et al., 2002), and worsening fire

severity. In this key, the role of the Alps in monitoring climate change evolution is particularly valuable in investigating potential human-induced, and human-affecting, developments, so strictly associated to the Anthropocene. Current global processes, chiefly climate and land use PDK4 changes, suggest that a complete removal of such

a disturbance from the Alpine area is neither feasible nor advisable. Consequently, we are likely to be forced again to live with fire and to apply traditional knowledge to the principles of fire – and land – management, namely creating resilient landscapes, adapted communities and adequate fire management policies (Dellasala et al., 2004). The unevenness of human population density in the Alpine region is a key issue in defining ad hoc management strategies. On the one hand, land abandonment of marginal areas, alongside climate anomalies, is leading to a new generation of unmanageable large fires (third fire generation sensu Castellnou and Miralles, 2009), where lack of accessibility and fuels build-up are the main constraints, with a greater effect than the often blamed climate change. This will pose a challenge in the future, for instance when shrinking government budgets might result in less capacity of fire services. Furthermore, unbalanced fire regimes such as fire exclusion or very frequent surreptitious use of fire could determine a loss of both species richness and landscape diversity, as it is happening with alpine heathlands ( Lonati et al., 2009 and Borghesio, 2014). Using planned fire for land management and fire prevention ( Fernandes et al.