, 2009, Lai et al., 2010, Xu et al., 2009 and Yang et al., 2006). For this reason, the pectic fraction GHW-IIET was selected for antioxidant activity tests. The GMW extract, which exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (37.5%), was used as a comparison. The results indicated that GHW-IIET had Docetaxel mouse increased DPPH radical-scavenging activity with increasing concentration (Fig. 4A). Other authors have observed similar behaviour
for polysaccharides from Litchi chinensis ( Yang et al., 2006), Pteridium aquilinum ( Xu et al., 2009) and Dendrobium denneanum ( Fan et al., 2009). At concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/ml, the polysaccharide GHW-IIET exhibited a DPPH radical-scavenging activities of 24.0% and 68.4%, respectively ( Fig. 4). A polysaccharide from Ganoderma tsugae, which was also isolated
by hot water extraction, exhibited a lower scavenging ability (∼38%) for DPPH radicals than did GHW-IIET at 10 mg/ml ( Tseng, Yang, & Mau, 2008). At the same concentration, chitosans with molar masses of 120 kDa and 90 kDa also showed lower DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did GHW-IIET, around 10% and 33%, respectively ( Kim & Thomas, 2007). However, when the AZD2281 clinical trial same authors tested a chitosan of 30 kDa, the scavenging effect was 100%. It has been proposed that polysaccharides are able to reduce the stable DPPH radical to yellow diphenylpicrylhydrazine due to the hydroxyl group of the monosaccharide units, which can donate a proton to reduce the DPPH radical (Yang, Zhao, Prasad, Jiang, & Jiang, 2010). For the same polysaccharide, substitution by methoxyl groups decreased the scavenging effect (Yang et al., 2010). Apart from hydroxyl groups, the GHW-IIET fraction contained galacturonic acid units and acetyl groups. According to Rao and Muralikrishna Sirolimus ic50 (2006), the presence of sugars with uronyl/acetyl groups imparts a strong antioxidant activity
to polysaccharides. The methanolic extract (GMW) that was obtained in this work exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (Fig. 4A) that ranged from 83.4% to 90.9% at concentrations of 0.1–10 mg/ml. Majhenič, Škerget, and Knez (2007) obtained extracts from guarana seeds with water, methanol, ethanol and acetone, using two different temperatures (room and boiling). In their study, the extract obtained with methanol (by boiling) had a total phenolic content of 17.6% and exhibited the highest activity against DPPH (∼85%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In the present work, nearly the same scavenging effect was observed for GMW at a concentration 10 times lower. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities of fractions GMW and GHW-IIET are depicted in Fig. 4B. Both fractions exhibited scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations of 0.1–1.