, 2009, Lai et al , 2010, Xu et al , 2009 and Yang et al , 2006)

, 2009, Lai et al., 2010, Xu et al., 2009 and Yang et al., 2006). For this reason, the pectic fraction GHW-IIET was selected for antioxidant activity tests. The GMW extract, which exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (37.5%), was used as a comparison. The results indicated that GHW-IIET had Docetaxel mouse increased DPPH radical-scavenging activity with increasing concentration (Fig. 4A). Other authors have observed similar behaviour

for polysaccharides from Litchi chinensis ( Yang et al., 2006), Pteridium aquilinum ( Xu et al., 2009) and Dendrobium denneanum ( Fan et al., 2009). At concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/ml, the polysaccharide GHW-IIET exhibited a DPPH radical-scavenging activities of 24.0% and 68.4%, respectively ( Fig. 4). A polysaccharide from Ganoderma tsugae, which was also isolated

by hot water extraction, exhibited a lower scavenging ability (∼38%) for DPPH radicals than did GHW-IIET at 10 mg/ml ( Tseng, Yang, & Mau, 2008). At the same concentration, chitosans with molar masses of 120 kDa and 90 kDa also showed lower DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did GHW-IIET, around 10% and 33%, respectively ( Kim & Thomas, 2007). However, when the AZD2281 clinical trial same authors tested a chitosan of 30 kDa, the scavenging effect was 100%. It has been proposed that polysaccharides are able to reduce the stable DPPH radical to yellow diphenylpicrylhydrazine due to the hydroxyl group of the monosaccharide units, which can donate a proton to reduce the DPPH radical (Yang, Zhao, Prasad, Jiang, & Jiang, 2010). For the same polysaccharide, substitution by methoxyl groups decreased the scavenging effect (Yang et al., 2010). Apart from hydroxyl groups, the GHW-IIET fraction contained galacturonic acid units and acetyl groups. According to Rao and Muralikrishna Sirolimus ic50 (2006), the presence of sugars with uronyl/acetyl groups imparts a strong antioxidant activity

to polysaccharides. The methanolic extract (GMW) that was obtained in this work exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (Fig. 4A) that ranged from 83.4% to 90.9% at concentrations of 0.1–10 mg/ml. Majhenič, Škerget, and Knez (2007) obtained extracts from guarana seeds with water, methanol, ethanol and acetone, using two different temperatures (room and boiling). In their study, the extract obtained with methanol (by boiling) had a total phenolic content of 17.6% and exhibited the highest activity against DPPH (∼85%) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In the present work, nearly the same scavenging effect was observed for GMW at a concentration 10 times lower. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities of fractions GMW and GHW-IIET are depicted in Fig. 4B. Both fractions exhibited scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations of 0.1–1.

Lee et al [2] noted that ginseng can

Lee et al [2] noted that ginseng can Alectinib help to stimulate antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection and inhibit the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumen. Yoo et al [3] have reported that “red ginseng extract showed significantly enhanced protection, lower levels of lung viral titers and interleukin-6.” In-depth biochemical analysis has shown that the polysaccharide in the extract is the main part that contributes to the counteracting function towards the influenza virus [4]. In addition, it has also been reported that Red Ginseng extract could enhance the protection

derived from influenza vaccination [5]. Hence, there is no doubt that ginseng as a food supplement can be useful against influenza. In human studies, some workers have reported that Red Ginseng can be useful in improving acute respiratory illness [6] as well as influenza-like illnesses [7]. In a study in humans, the protective effect of ginseng on human endothelial cells against avian influenza virus has been reported in vitro [8]. However, there has not yet

been a reliable clinical trial on influenza in humans. There are still topics for further study, including: verification of the usefulness of ginseng extract in humans; standardization of the commercially available ginseng extracts; and the development of a health body which can give information to users about the effectiveness and safety of ginseng supplementation. As noted by www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk126.html Cell press Kaneko and Nakanishi [9], the effect of ginseng is mysterious and most data are from subjective clinical observations; further research on this topic is required.

Finally, the safety of using ginseng in humans should also be mentioned. Although ginseng is considered safe, some rare adverse effects, such as anaphylaxis, have been reported [10]. In a human study evaluating the role of ginseng extract in potentiating the influenza vaccine, many adverse effects were recorded, especially insomnia [11]. The author declares no conflicts of interest. “
“Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was first described in 1958 by Rosen et al. and is a rare lung disease characterized by the abnormal accumulation of PAS-positive (periodic acid-Schiff) phospholipoprotein material in the alveoli.1 Two forms are described: primary or idiopathic, which occurs in the absence of another illness or a known environmental exposure; and secondary, when associated with another morbid condition, especially infectious or neoplastic, in various states of immunosuppression, as well as in those resulting from the inhalation of chemical agents and mineral particles (silica, aluminum, titanium, and some insecticides). Several etiological agents have been identified in this population: Aspergillus sp., Nocardia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Pneumocystis carinii, and virus.

Furthermore, when the dosage of ginseng extract was increased 10-

Furthermore, when the dosage of ginseng extract was increased 10-fold, the AUC of ginsenoside Rd did not significantly increase. These results suggest

that when ginsenoside Rb1 was administered orally, the absorption of the metabolite ginsenoside Rd would depend on the metabolic conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rd by intestinal microbiota. Therefore, to increase the rate of absorption of ginsenoside Rd into the blood, intestinal bacterial metabolic activation of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rd may be induced. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a prebiotic, NUTRIOSE, on intestinal bacterial metabolic activity. When the intestinal microbiota of rats were cultured in NUTRIOSE-containing GAM, NUTRIOSE induced the metabolic conversion of 3-Methyladenine solubility dmso ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Rd. These results suggest that the prebiotic NUTRIOSE may promote the

ginsenoside-metabolizing enzyme activity of gastrointestinal microbiota, and that NUTRIOSE-induced microbiota are capable of further potentiating the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to ginsenoside Rd. We also performed a pharmacokinetic Doxorubicin price study of ginseng extract in rats fed with NUTRIOSE for 2 wk. Supplementation of NUTRIOSE in the diet significantly increased the AUC and Cmax of ginsenoside Rd in a NUTRIOSE content dependent manner and accelerated this process. Supplementation of 10% NUTRIOSE in the diet caused AUC and Cmax of ginsenoside Rd to increase 1.34-fold. Furthermore, Tmax was shorter in NUTRIOSE-fed rats than in normal diet-treated ones. In conclusion, the absorption of bioactive metabolite ginsenoside Rd in rats orally administered with ginsenoside Rb1 or ginseng extract was dependent on the metabolic activity of gastrointestinal microflora. Furthermore, oral administration of a prebiotic NUTRIOSE can stimulate the intestinal bacterial metabolic conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to ginsenoside Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin Rd to improve the absorption of ginsenoside Rd. All authors declare no conflicts of interest. “
“Welding is a process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing

coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. Although many pulmonary and non-pulmonary health hazards of welding have been described in the literature,1 this is the first case report of alveolar hemorrhage due to welding fumes. A 40 years-old welder presented with sudden episode of massive hemoptysis without hemodynamic failure. Hemoptysis, in an amount of 4 cups, occurred suddenly after 8 h of welding in time of a few hours. The patient described the amount of bleeding as 1 L. He denied dyspnea, sputum production, fever, chest pain and any contact with tuberculous patients.

The Se, an essential nutrient, plays an important role in antioxi

The Se, an essential nutrient, plays an important role in antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (Tapiero et al., 2003). It is also well established

that Se can counteract the toxicity of various elements in animals, especially that of Hg2 + and MeHg (Beyrouty Akt inhibitor and Chan, 2006, El-Begearmi et al., 1982, Fredriksson et al., 1993, Ganther et al., 1972 and Satoh et al., 1985). Moreover, Se is known to coexist with Hg in fish and sea mammals (Burger and Gochfeld, 2007, Burger et al., 2007 and Cabanero et al., 2005), and may play a role in protecting against MeHg toxicity. We recently demonstrated that selenomethionine, a food-derived Se, directly protected against neuronal degeneration caused by MeHg in the developing rat cerebrum (Sakamoto et al., 2013). The main objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate the role of the placenta in the transfer of various trace elements from mother to fetus during gestation, by comparing the element concentrations in chorionic tissue of placenta and cord tissue; and 2) to assess the potential use of trace element concentrations in placenta and cord tissue for predicting their body burden in mothers and newborns during gestation, by studying the relationships of the element concentrations

Neratinib among chorionic tissue of placenta and cord tissue as well as maternal and cord RBCs. Approximately 1 week before parturition, a total of 48 healthy Japanese pregnant women without any known exposure to heavy metals provided written informed consent to participate either in the study. The women were aged between 21 and 41 years (mean age: 29.3 ± 4.2 years), and resided in Munakata City, Fukuoka, Japan. The babies were born healthy after full-term pregnancies (37–41 months), and comprised 25 males and 23 females. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Institute for Minamata Disease

(NIMD). Placenta, umbilical cord tissue for 5 cm on the fetus side, and venous umbilical cord blood (13 mL) were collected from the 48 pairs of mothers and infants at parturition between May and December 2002. Venous maternal blood (10 mL) was collected before breakfast on the first day after parturition. The blood samples were obtained by venipuncture and collected in heparin-containing vacutainer tubes. RBCs were obtained by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 min. All samples were stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Chorionic tissue of the placenta was separated from the placenta using scissors. The chorionic tissue of the placenta and cord tissue were rinsed five times with 0.9% saline and pressed using paper towels each time to remove the blood, and then freeze-dried. The reason for using freeze-dried cord tissue was that 48 paires of T-Hg in cord RBCs showed a better correlation coefficient with T-Hg in freeze-dried cord tissue (rs = 0.85) than with T-Hg in wet cord tissue (rs = 0.82) in a preliminary experiment. Grandjean et al.

We used the longest-term data presented in a study, and except fo

We used the longest-term data presented in a study, and except for analyses to evaluate treatment intensity or burn severity, we averaged data across different intensities of a treatment type (e.g., different levels of thinning) in the infrequent cases where different intensities were presented. From extracted data for

both understory abundance and richness, we calculated a ratio of treatment:control or after:before treatment. For studies with both pre-treatment data and controls, we first calculated the after:before ratio then used that to calculate the treatment:control PLX-4720 nmr ratio. Some papers presented data as relative differences (such as percent change from pre- to post-treatment), which could result in negative ratios. Additionally, some studies had zeros as denominators (e.g., if controls had zero plants), precluding calculation of ratios. In these cases, we simply calculated the raw difference between

after/before or treated/control values. We considered conducting a formal statistical meta-analysis, but the available data had several features that limited meta-analysis. Presentation of relative differences (resulting in negative values) or presence of zeros in some studies, together with many papers not reporting a measure of variability or being unreplicated, complicated calculation of meta-analytical statistics (Harrison, 2011). It is noteworthy, but not uncommon, that some of the most ecologically Dorsomorphin molecular weight insightful studies in our data set did not meet requirements for calculation of standard meta-analysis statistics, such as Knapp et al.’s (2013) remeasurement of 79-year-old silvicultural treatments installed in 1929. Another significant issue was that, for several of our questions, approximately equal proportions of decreases and increases were reported across studies. Analyzing an average or median effect size in this situation represented an effect size (i.e., zero

or no change) rarely or never actually occurring in the literature. We adopted a hybrid approach to data analysis by using a combination of effect sizes (after:before or treatment:control ratios) as appropriate, ranking relative Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase responses to treatments, and categorizing understory responses to treatment as relative increase (ratios >1, or raw difference >0), no change (ratios = 1 or difference = 0), or decrease (ratios <1, difference <0). For Question 1 (relative influences of treatments on total understory plant abundance and species richness), we ranked relative responses of an understory measure among treatments within a study (e.g., +++ signified the greatest increase among treatments in a study where an understory measure increased in all three treatments) and as increase (+) or decrease (−) if only one treatment was evaluated in a study. For Question 2 (influence of time since treatment), we regressed time since treatment with treatment : control ratio of total plant abundance and species richness.

In fact, when I answer the phone my first words will be, ‘What sk

In fact, when I answer the phone my first words will be, ‘What skills have you tried so far?’” Some clients possess the skills but have difficulty employing

Selleck Pictilisib them when extreme emotions are present. By asking clients to first try to use their skills prior to calling, they are given the opportunity to rehearse skills and attempt skill use under intense emotional circumstances, thereby increasing generalization to the natural environment. A second important reason to orient clients to try two skills prior to making a phone coaching call is to shape the client into using skills. Informing the client that they must use skills prior to placing the call communicates to the client that the purpose of the call is to assist in skills generalization and not to conduct therapy over the phone

(Ben-Porath, 2004). By insisting that the client first engage in the mTOR inhibitor requisite behavior of trying two skills, clients are required to rehearse and practice skills prior to gaining contact with their DBT therapist. The outcome of the skill use, meaning whether the skill was effective or not, is irrelevant, particularly in the earlier stages of treatment. Clients should be reinforced for attempting to use skills rather than the outcome. In rare cases in which a client’s behavior cannot be modified or shaped, a therapist may elect to take a phone holiday. Examples include nonproductive phone calls in which a client berates or fails to try skills after phone coaching or a client PR-171 who calls too frequently or refuses to end the call. A phone holiday provides respite for the therapist who might otherwise burn out or fall into ineffective treatment delivery if not provided an opportunity to temporarily disengage from the relationship (Linehan, 1993). This course is recommended only when the behavior of the client is sufficiently disruptive that it is likely to threaten or destroy the therapy relationship (Linehan). Consultation with the DBT team on how to shape and manage these behaviors is essential in these circumstances (Koons,

2011). The following vignette provides an illustration of how to discuss a phone holiday with a client. THERAPIST: I would like to discuss our last several phone coaching calls. Many researchers and clinicians recognize the importance of orienting clients to treatment. The goal of this paper and the accompanying video was to extend this to the area of orienting clients to DBT telephone coaching. Clinicians who are new to DBT may not fully appreciate how DBT telephone coaching differs from intersession contact that they previously have had with clients. Orienting clients to the three functions of DBT telephone coaching provides the therapist and the client with the information of when and why to contact a therapist between sessions.

, 2013b) Therefore, development of plethysmography, diaphragmati

, 2013b). Therefore, development of plethysmography, diaphragmatic EMG,

and optogenetic procedures GSK J4 manufacturer reveals that WNV-infected mice die from respiratory insufficiency due to neurological deficits, and that therapeutic intervention strategies should target these deficits. Experimental procedures have been developed to monitor autonomic dysfunction in WNV-infected rodents (Wang et al., 2011), since human clinical studies and case reports have identified certain signs and symptoms that are reflective of autonomic dysfunctions. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a well-accepted and widely-used indicator of autonomic function in human patients and in rodents (Heart rate variability, 1996). Parasympathetic autonomic function affects heart rate by cardiopulmonary coupling, which is the neurological connectivity that causes the heart rate to increase during respiratory inspiration and causes it

to decrease during expiration. This physiological event is referred to as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (Grossman and Taylor, 2007), and it results in more efficient cardiopulmonary function. Therefore, higher HRV is an indicator of healthy autonomic parasympathetic function. Conversely, reduced HRV is an indicator of unhealthy parasympathetic function. The HRV is monitored in rodents infected with WNV using radiotelemetry chips (Wang et al., 2011). A midline dorsal incision is made along Pictilisib chemical structure the spine, and a subcutaneous pocket is made to house the telemetric device. Two recording-leads subcutaneously tunneled toward the left and right clavicular regions are sutured to the pectoral muscles. Telemetry receivers on platforms under the cages are used

to collect data for calculating the frequency and time domains, which are mathematical computations used to identify HRV. The frequency domain G protein-coupled receptor kinase is analyzed with the power spectral densities of the heartbeats based on the fast Fourier transform. The time domains are based on the time of each beat between the ECG R peaks. From these data the mean R–R interval, and standard deviation of normal R–R intervals are calculated for each animal. During the development of WNND, the HRV is progressively reduced in hamsters, which suggests that WNV infection causes autonomic dysfunction in hamsters and possibly in infected people. It is currently not known at this time, however, the locations of neurological lesions that contribute to this autonomic dysfunction. Observations of similar radiotelemetry studies indicate that mice do not develop reduced HRV despite the development of fatal WNND, and that autonomic dysfunction is not the physiological cause of death (Wang et al., 2013b), whereas as discussed previously, respiratory insufficiency from lesions directly affecting respiratory function is likely the physiological cause of death.

Hypoxia-induced sighs activate important muscles and can lead to

Hypoxia-induced sighs activate important muscles and can lead to subcortical and cortical arousal (Fig. 3). Once aroused, an organism can avoid the hypoxic condition by for example changing its sleeping position. The sigh may

therefore link the hypoxic condition caused by OSA to arousal, which eventually results in sleep deprivation, one of the detrimental consequences of OSA. Interestingly sighs may also play an important role in the generation of periodic breathing as postulated by (Guntheroth, 2011). This centrally generated mechanism is very sensitive to state changes (Orem and Trotter, 1993). The transition Gefitinib from sleep to wakefulness is often characterized by the activation of a sigh and arousal (Fig. 4) (Eckert et al., 2007a). Note, in Fig. 4, the sigh seems to contribute to a decrease in CO2 level. This decrease in CO2 may be involved in the generation of the apnea that typically follows the sigh. Indeed, during an “augmented” breath simulated by a ventilator, a decreased CO2 drive can generate a brief apnea as elegantly demonstrated by Remmers et al. (1978). However, these simulated augmented breaths evoked brief apneas only under certain conditions such as hypoxia. Moreover, we know that the post-sigh apnea can be generated

centrally within the preBötC under conditions in which oxygen and CO2 are not altered (Fig. 3). Thus, the post-sigh HDAC inhibitor apnea is indeed a “central apnea” generated within the ventrolateral medulla. Interestingly, a “post-sigh-like apnea” can be simulated centrally, by maximally stimulating isolated medullary respiratory pacemaker neurons. This purely central electrical stimulation is followed by a prolonged pause in the rhythmic bursting of these respiratory neurons (Tryba et al., 2008).

The post-sigh apnea is an important manifestation of a central apnea (Eckert et al., 2007a, Radulovacki et al., 2001 and Saponjic et al., 2007). Post-sigh apneas are very common in children (Haupt et al., 2012 and O’Driscoll et al., 2009) but are also present in adults (Vlemincx et al., 2010). Post-sigh apneas can be exaggerated in neurological disorders such as Leigh Syndrome (Quintana selleck kinase inhibitor et al., 2012, Saito, 2009 and Yasaki et al., 2001), Familial Dysautonomia (Weese-Mayer et al., 2008), and Rett Syndrome (Voituron et al., 2010). Although it is clearly generated centrally, it must be emphasized that in the intact organism, additional chemosensory mechanisms will contribute and potentially exaggerate the post-sigh apnea because the post-sigh apnea is associated with significant changes in blood gases. Apneas emerge through a complex interplay between peripheral and central nervous system factors that affect all levels of integration: from the molecular to the cellular and organismic level. This interplay affects many aspects of respiratory control making it difficult to clearly separate central versus peripheral contributions to the generation of the apnea.

Prior to playing the actual game participants received a training

Prior to playing the actual game participants received a training of 20 rounds to familiarise them GSK-3 inhibitor with the controls and the mechanics of the game. During this training, the five auction items were replaced by abstract figures. After training, players could inspect the available auction items. All items (candle, pens, box of chocolate, one-way camera, herbal tea) were purchased at approximately the same price (4.5–5.0 Euro). The price of the items was not revealed to the participants. After inspection, players ranked the items according to their preference with 1 denoting the lowest and 5 the highest preference. Participants played 200 auctions (40 for each item) randomly interspersed. In each

round, players could distribute 100 points either to the auction item or to a monetary lottery with a price of seven

Euro, which was higher than the actual cost of each item. The player with the highest amount of points allotted to the auction would win the round. The points allocated to the lottery (divided by 100) represented the chance to win seven Euro in this round. For example, take two players who bid for an item. Player 1 bids 25 points and player 2 bids 40 points. In this round player 2 wins the item and has an additional chance of 60% to win seven Euro. Player 1 does not win the auction but has a 75% chance to win the lottery. We deliberately chose a lottery as second investment options for players to minimize decision biases due to risk sensitivity. That is, allocating points in either auction or lottery entailed the risk of losing points. Overbidding in our case occurred when the sum of both PF-02341066 solubility dmso players’ bids exceeded 71 (approximate value of each item: five Euro equaling Thalidomide 71 points). These calculations were not revealed to the participants. At the end of the game participants had to rank the items again for preference. One round was randomly selected for each player and the outcome was paid

to each participant. In other words, participants could actually win one of the items and an additional seven Euro. Participants who did not win either received three Euro alone. All participants received an additional show-up fee of five Euro. To assess participants’ private value for each item participants did not receive feedback on the outcome of the auction in the first five rounds of the experiment where all five items were presented. In all other rounds participants received feedback on whether they won the auction but not the lottery and how much the other player bid for the item. Since we were interested in exploring the interaction between private value, social influences, and competitiveness of the environment, we performed a manipulation on the items players saw in each round by matching preferences of players in the auction. We ordered items via the preferences participants gave prior to the auction. A pair of players would bid on the item with the same preference, which was not necessarily the same item.

(1979, 249) point out, the preservation

(1979, 249) point out, the preservation see more potential of earthen berms is drastically lower than that of stone walls. At La Laguna old berms were often barely perceptible in stratigraphic section. The silted up ditches, however, were well preserved and easily picked out during excavation, though they would have been invisible in a surface survey. I am thus surprised by the complete absence of fossilized ditches in contexts where they could be stratigraphically demonstrated to be prehispanic, even at sites such as Cihuatecpan, where elaborate

economic models have been built on the assumption that Postclassic villagers grew maguey on metepantles (Evans, 1990). I have never seen any convincing trace of metepantle ditches at any of the severely eroded Postclassic sites, either in the erosional pedestals, or as cuts in the surface of the tepetate. I am thus beginning to think that, despite their suggestive Nahuatl name, they became widespread only in the Colonial period, as a suitable solution for times of severe labor shortages. Doubts pointing in the same direction (see McClung de Tapia, 2000) may be voiced on the basis of archaeological, documentary, and ethnographic evidence. Kern (1968) discovered and mapped a large complex of abandoned Rigosertib cell line metepantles under pine forest just to the south of Tlaxcala. The ditches cut through remnants of a Late Postclassic occupation. He credited nearby haciendas with their

construction, and blamed their abandonment on the turmoil of the Revolution. Kaerger’s (1986[1901], 241–4, 264–5) eyewitness descriptions associate metepantles with progressive hacienda

Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK owners. Kaerger phrases them in a way that suggests they were considered an innovation in the late 19th C., which led Trautmann (1981, 55) to question their prehispanic origin. The most forceful argument, supported by linguistic considerations, has been developed by Skopyk (2010, 280–419), who sees the spread of metepantles as the response of Indian farmers to ecological and economic factors that took hold only in the 17th C. Scattered documentary references point to repeated episodes of abandonment of fields, haciendas, and a few villages after 1650. Seasonal and permanent emigration became a constant feature after 1692 (Skopyk, 2010, 264, 274–7) and the Revolution set in motion large-scale but often short-distance movements of hacienda laborers to settlements founded on redistributed land. Archaeologists and architectural historians have barely begun to study the material vestiges of these processes (Newman and Juli, 2007 and Terán Bonilla, 1996). On some hills fence lines separate cultivated sectors from completely eroded ones (Borejsza et al., 2008, fig. 8). Where such contrasts reach beyond the memory of local informants, they may be the result of decisions made more than a century ago, traceable by the techniques of landscape archaeology and the tracking of changing estate boundaries in documents.