In our study, we have examined the genetic and biochemical potent

In our study, we have examined the genetic and biochemical potential of several aquatic bacteria to phosphorylate native dNs. In two Gram-negative bacteria, F. psychrophilum JIP02/86 and Polaribacter sp. MED 152, we identified TK1-like kinase (FpTK1 and PdTK1, respectively, Table S2), which group together with the already characterized Gram-positive TK1-like dNKs (Fig. 1). selleck The corresponding enzymes followed classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics and were strictly specific for dT and dU (Table 1, Fig. S2a,b,e,f ). The kinetics parameters for FpTK1 resemble those of the Gram-positive TK1s from Staphylococcus aureus TK1 (SaTK1) and

Bacillus cereus TK1 (BcTK1), which also supports the obtained phylogenetic relationship (Sandrini et al., 2007a,b). On the other hand, PdTK1 is from the kinetic point of view similar to Gram-negative TK1 from Salmonella selleck chemicals enterica (SeTK1) (Sandrini et al., 2007a). Surprisingly, while the previously characterized bacterial TK1s are relatively thermostable, both FpTK1 and PdTK1 were not active at 37 °C, and by measuring PdTK1 phosphorylating activity as a function

of temperature, it turned out that the activity of PdTK1 increased with temperature up to 21 °C (Fig. 3). When measured at higher temperatures, 25, 30, and 37 °C, the activity decreased over time. Furthermore, when pre-incubating the enzyme at 0 °C for one hour, the measured activity at 21 °C was 10-fold lower, while pre-incubation at 37 °C for one hour resulted in irreversible denaturation. These data can be important for the interpretation of the results obtained in the past studies, when the indirect activity of TK1 from aquatic bacteria was measured at 37 °C (Jeffrey & Paul, 1990). In short, when measuring the activity of bacteria isolated from cold niches by the incorporation of 3H-dT into newly synthesized DNA, one not should keep in mind that the activity should be measured at different temperatures. So far it has been thought that Gram-negative bacteria have only one dNK, TK1, while Gram-positive bacteria seem to have several dNKs (Sandrini et al., 2007a). The FpdNK and PddNK kinases followed classical Michaelis–Menten

kinetics and were able to phosphorylate dA and dC; however, both of them had dA as the preferred substrate (Table 1, Fig. S2c, d,g,h). None of them was able to efficiently phosphorylate dG; therefore, these two enzymes seem to act like dAK from S. aureus dAK (SadAK) or B. cereus dAK (BcdAK) (Sandrini et al., 2007a,b), but with much lower specificity for dC. The substrate preferences could be partially explained by the genome composition. Both bacteria have AT content of approximately 70%; therefore during DNA replication, they need more A and T than G and C. However, it is puzzling why the activity on dG is so low in both species (Table 1 and Table S2). We examined the sequenced genomes from several aquatic bacteria for the genes encoding dNKs, the key enzymes in the salvage of dNs.

, 2001) to identify the closest relatives GenBank accession numb

, 2001) to identify the closest relatives. GenBank accession numbers were assigned

for the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolates (GU086416, GU086419, GU086421, GU086430, GU086437, GU086451) and of the DGGE bands (FJ972838–FJ972861). Multiple alignments and distance matrix analyses were conducted using the mega 3.0 software package. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method and bootstrap analysis based on 1000 replicates. DGGE analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments was used to examine the effects of dichlorvos application upon the bacterial community of the phyllosphere at the molecular level. As PLX3397 research buy shown in Fig. 1, the DGGE profiles of the samples after dichlorvos treatment were different from those of the control samples, with the appearance of new bands (bands A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A8, A9, A13 and A14) and the loss of others (bands A11, A12 and Lenvatinib order A19). Band A10 was detected in all samples. On day 0, the patterns of bands from the control and treated samples were similar. After treatment with dichlorvos for

1 day, the bands of the treated sample increased rapidly relative to those of the control. After a few days, the new bands decreased and the profiles of the control and treated samples became similar again. Band A12, which had appeared on days 2 and 4 and then disappeared, may indicate that the microorganisms were susceptible to the auxiliary solvent that was added to the pesticide. Band A7 appeared after the application of dichlorvos with the associated auxiliary solvent and persisted. The effect of dichlorvos treatment on the phyllosphere bacterial community was further confirmed by dendrogram analysis (Fig. 2), which demonstrated two distinct clusters formed by the dichlorvos-treated and control samples (similarity coefficients were <53%),

except on the second day. Significant changes (P<0.01) were observed in the bacterial community composition after the dichlorvos treatment. Temporal changes in the composition of the bacterial community Inositol monophosphatase 1 were also detected by grouping the profiles according to the sampling dates within clusters I and II (Fig. 2). In cluster I, the samples were separated into two smaller clusters according to the sampling date: treatment days 0, 4, 6 and 7 and control day 2 clustered together but separately from treatment day 1. In cluster II, the bacterial community also showed variation. The control samples on day 0 and 6 had similar profiles (similarity coefficient >90%) and clustered together with the day 2 treated sample, but separately from the other control samples. The difference between the control and treated samples from day 2 and the other samples is probably because some bacterial species were sensitive to the solvents added to the pesticide. The results of the sequence similarity searches for the 24 bands labelled in Fig. 1 are shown in Table 1.

EMBOSS Palindrome

EMBOSS Palindrome Proteasome inhibitor analysis ( was used to locate palindromic sequences upstream of desE and desF. blastn analysis identified sequences with similarity to the DmdR-binding consensus from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (Flores & Martín, 2004). The S. tropica des mutant was grown in A1 media (10 g L−1 potato starch,

4 g L−1 yeast extract, 2 g L−1 peptone, 28 g L−1 Instant Ocean) with 36 μM FeSO4 to mid-log phase, and 300 μL of cells was spread on iron-limited media plates. To test siderophore uptake, triplicate filter discs with 10 μg DFO E or yersiniabactin (EMC Microcollections GmbH, Germany), 130 μg FeSO4 or ultrapure water were placed on overlays. To probe the function of the putative

siderophore biosynthetic loci in S. tropica CNB-440 and S. arenicola CNS-205, we inactivated each by insertional inactivation of critical structural genes. In both species, the des mutants grew poorly in iron-limited media, the growth of which was visible after 2 months. When supplemented with FeSO4, the des mutant growth improved with cultures growing within 2 weeks, compared to wild-type cultures that grew densely and reached stationary phase within 1 week in iron-replete media. In contrast, mutagenesis of sid2-4 did not alter the growth or phenotype of the cells in either iron-limited or iron-sufficient conditions. CAS assays determined the presence of iron chelators in wild-type and mutant cultures. Mutagenesis of the des cluster, but not sid2-4, abolished CAS activity in S. tropica CNB-440 in the both the total culture and extracted supernatant. Similarly, disruption AZD4547 supplier of des, but not sid2, resulted in the loss of CAS activity in the S. arenicola CNS-205 total culture and supernatant. These observations suggest that the primary growth-essential iron chelator in Salinispora laboratory cultures is a siderophore associated with the des locus. To confirm the lack of activity from sid2–sid4, we used RT-PCR to determine the conditions under which the putative siderophore biosynthetic loci were transcribed

(Fig. 2). The des gene cluster was transcribed in both mafosfamide species under iron limitation and repressed under iron-replete conditions. Interestingly, the sid2 transcript was detected in iron-limited S. tropica CNB-440, whereas it was only identified in iron-replete S. arenicola CNS-205. Transcript was detected under iron limitation from most genes within the S. tropica CNB-440 sid2 gene cluster (Table 1), except for a methyltransferase (stro2056), FAD-dependent monooxygenase (stro2658), hypothetical protein (stro2659) and putative transporters (stro2651-2). Despite the detection of sid2 transcript in both strains, no chemotypic differences were detected by the analytical HPLC in the extracts of mutants compared with the wild-type. The sid3 and sid4 gene clusters were not transcribed under iron-limited or iron-replete conditions.

gobiernodecanariasorg/istac) According to the last official loc According to the last official local register, published by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, the non-Spanish resident population actually represents 14.3% of the total population

TSA HDAC clinical trial of Canary Islands, and it has increased from 61,523 habitants in 1991 up to 295,464 in 2006 ( Sanitary attention demanded by travelers and immigrants in Gran Canaria is becoming more stringent, due to different factors: its strategic geographic situation, the existence of an important maritime transit, and increasing immigration to Europe via the Canary Islands. Unfortunately, there is little information about imported malaria cases in the archipielago.7–9 This is the reason why we consider important to make an update

revision of imported malaria situation in our region. There are three main referral teaching hospitals in the Gran Canaria Island (Hospital Universitario Insular, Hospital Doctor Negrín, and Hospital Materno-Infantil), providing sanitary assistance to a population Selleckchem Ponatinib of approximately 700,000 inhabitants. All patients diagnosed with microbiologically confirmed malaria and treated in these hospitals from January 1, 1993 until December 3, 2006 are included in our study. Outpatients with malaria episodes diagnosed and treated in other sanitary centers were not considered. Data on patients diagnosed from 2007 have not yet been made available for detailed investigations. Patients were classified into one of the next four categories: (1) tourist and business travelers returning from malaria anti-PD-1 antibody areas, (2) international sailors stopping over in Las Palmas Port in maritime routes to or from the African continent, (3) immigrants who reside in Gran Canaria and travel to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFR), and (4) recently

arrived immigrants, meaning immigrants coming from endemic countries who arrived to the island for the first time within the last 6 months. Through clinical records we have retrospectively compiled epidemiological data (age, sex, nationality, travel purpose and destination, and chemoprophylaxis), clinical data (fever, headache, muscle aches, vomits, diarrhea, abdominal pain, colored urine, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly), indicators of severe malaria (World Health Organization criteria),10,11 complications, treatment, and outcome. We have also registered laboratory findings such as hemoglobin (g/dL), platelet number, leukocyte, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST, U/L), and total bilirubin (mg/dL), and microbiology data about Plasmodium species, level of parasitemia, and molecular biology diagnosis [polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. Diagnosis was based on the parasite demonstration of blood smears through light microscopy. Thick and thin blood films were stained with Giemsa 3% and analyzed for the presence of parasites and parasite species.

Funding is also provided by the National Institute of Child Healt

Funding is also provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U01-HD-32632) and the National Center for Research Resources (M01-RR-00071, M01-RR-00079 and M01-RR-00083). The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) investigators include: Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA:

John J. Chiosi, Sarah Chung, Andrea L. Ciaranello, Kenneth A. Freedberg, Heather E. Hsu, Elena Losina, Zhigang Lu, Caroline Sloan, Stacie Waldman, Rochelle P. Walensky, PKC412 manufacturer Bingxia Wang, Angela Wong and Hong Zhang; Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA: Paul E. Sax; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA: Sue J. Goldie, April D. Kimmel, Kara L. Cotich, Marc Lipsitch, Chara E. Rydzak, George R. Seage III and Milton C. Weinstein; Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA: A. David Paltiel; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, NY, USA: Bruce R. Schackman. “
“Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens may be needed in patients with NRTI toxicity. Maraviroc (MVC) plus ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV-r) or atazanavir is associated with slightly lower response rates than triple therapy in drug-naïve patients. No information is available on these combinations

in pretreated patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy MLN0128 and safety of MVC plus DRV/r once-daily (qd) in HIV-infected pretreated patients. A retrospective cohort study including patients starting MVC 150 mg plus DRV/r 800/100 mg qd, with CCR5 tropism and no resistance mutations for DRV/r, was performed. The primary to efficacy endpoint was the achievement of plasma HIV RNA < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL after 48 weeks. The frequency of serious adverse effects was investigated. Sixty

patients were recruited to the study, of whom 48 (80%) had HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL at baseline. Reasons for starting MVC plus DRV/r were: adverse effects in 38 individuals (63%), simplification in 15 (25%) and virological failure in seven (12%). The main analysis (intention to treat, noncompleter = failure) showed that 47 patients (78%) achieved HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks (paired comparison with baseline, P = 1.0). On-treatment analysis showed that 42 (86%) of 49 patients presented HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks (paired comparison with baseline, P = 1.0). Median (interquartile range) CD4 cell counts increased from 491 (301−729) to 561 (367−793) cells/μL at 48 weeks (P = 0.013). Only one patient discontinued therapy because of adverse effects. Most individuals starting MVC plus DRV/r qd because of simplification or adverse effects maintained HIV suppression after 48 weeks of follow-up.

This NRTI backbone is particularly

This NRTI backbone is particularly Paclitaxel mouse associated

with development of LA/SHL and as a result would not currently be recommended, although d4T continues to be a common component of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in resource-limited settings. The main results of the study, showing better efficacy of ART containing efavirenz, have been published previously [20]. As this was a large, randomized, prospective study incorporating use of NRTI combinations associated with the development of LA and SHL, this trial presented an excellent opportunity to examine factors associated with LA and SHL. The objectives of this substudy focused on LA and SHL were: (a) to describe the incidence of LA and SHL in INITIO; (b) to identify risk factors associated with the development of LA or SHL; (c) to investigate whether SHL or LA is associated with lower mtDNA/mtRNA values or changes in mtDNA/mtRNA. We postulated that lower PBMC mtDNA or mtRNA content prior to therapy, or changes

on therapy, would predict subsequent development of LA or SHL. The INITIO trial recruited antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients in 21 countries from Australasia, South America, North America and Europe. Each site obtained ethics committee approval and study subjects provided written informed consent to participate in the study. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria have been discussed elsewhere [20]. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive ddI and d4T with efavirenz, nelfinavir or both. Dosing of NRTIs was weight dependent; for ddI, the recommended starting dose was 200 mg twice daily or 400 mg once daily for subjects above 60 kg in weight, and 125 mg twice daily or Etofibrate 250 mg once daily for subjects below 60 kg. For d4T, the recommended starting dose was 20 mg twice daily for those above 60 kg, and 15 mg twice daily for those below 60 kg. Although

dose recommendations were weight based there was no specific follow-up of dose adjustments with change in weight on treatment. All participants were assessed at randomization, and then at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and subsequently every 12 weeks. Cases of SHL and LA were identified by the Clinical Event Review Committee (CERC). For the purposes of this study, subjects were considered to have hyperlactataemia if the serum lactate was ≥2 times the upper limit of normal. All lactate measurements were performed locally at each institution as per standard practices. Subjects were considered as ‘symptomatic’ if two or more unexplained symptoms of any grade were present in association with raised lactate among the following: fatigue, malaise, weight loss, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain.

hiv-druginteractionsorg) is an

excellent and highly reco is an

excellent and highly recommended resource for information relating to potential drug interactions. Additional information resources also include the electronic selleck kinase inhibitor medicines compendium ( and medical information departments of pharmaceutical companies. Communication with GPs and other medical specialties involved in patient care is fundamental in minimizing the risk of adverse DDIs. All clinic letters should carry as a standard header or footer advice to check for interactions, and links to resources, such as, to address the potential for drug interactions. We recommend against the unselected use of TDM (GPP). TDM may be of clinical value in specific populations (e.g. children, pregnant women) or selected clinical scenarios (e.g. malabsorption, drug interactions, suspected non-adherence to therapy). TDM has been shown to be valuable in optimizing the management of certain patients; however, the general utility of this test in patients receiving ART has been poorly assessed. With the marked improvement in efficacy and tolerability of modern ARV regimens, the role of TDM in clinical management has also evolved. A Cochrane review

of RCTs [9] suggested little value when used unselectively. However, TDM may aid the management of vulnerable populations or complex clinical situations. Monitoring adherence. While detection of drug at therapeutic or even high plasma concentrations does not exclude low adherence, absence of measurable drug, or else very low levels of drug, strongly Z-VAD-FMK suggest lack of medication intake, particularly in the absence of evidence of significant malabsorption. Here, TDM should rarely be interpreted in isolation, but rather integrated with virological rebound, particularly

in the Rolziracetam absence of any resistance mutations and other features in the history that suggest risk for low treatment adherence. Optimizing treatment in vulnerable patients (e.g. children, pregnant women and patients with extremes of body mass index) or in specific clinical situations (e.g. liver and renal impairment, treatment failure, drug interactions both foreseen and unanticipated, malabsorption, suspected non-adherence and unlicensed once-daily dosing regimens). In these scenarios, the aim is to optimize dosing based either on known efficacy or toxicity cut-offs, or else to achieve the range of plasma concentrations encountered in patients without these factors, who have been recruited to pharmacokinetic studies at licensed treatment doses that are known to be both safe and efficacious. Managing drug interactions (see above). Where the HIV drug has the potential to be adversely affected by another drug, and the combination is unavoidable, TDM may be used either to manage that interaction, or else discount a significant interaction in a particular patient. Other situations.

After the growth proceeded to opacity, an aliquot was removed and

After the growth proceeded to opacity, an aliquot was removed and used as an inoculum in a new bottle with fresh medium and an additional 5% ethanol for another 12-h incubation. The cultures were diluted and spread on agar plates without ethanol. Individual colonies, visible after 8–10 h, were subcultured in medium supplemented with 10% ethanol to confirm the ethanol tolerance of the strains. The strains were purified by repeatedly isolating single colonies in agar plates at least five times. The type strains of A. flavithermus DSM 2641T, Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis DSM 12423T and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis NCIMB 13971T were obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen

AZD2014 nmr und Zellkulturen (DSMZ). Anoxybacillus eryuanensis KCTC 13720T and Anoxybacillus tengchongensis KCTC 13721T were acquired from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC). The cells were initially cultured overnight in LB medium with 4% ethanol. The culture was washed

twice in unsupplemented medium to remove ethanol and then used for inoculation of medium with ethanol added at concentrations PLX4032 research buy of 0–10%. The cultures were incubated without shaking at temperatures in the range of 45–65 °C for 60 h. Samples for measurement were withdrawn directly from the sealed bottles with sterile syringes before and after incubation. Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. To evaluate whether this organism can metabolize ethanol, ethanol was analyzed by Agilent 7890A GC System equipped with an Agilent 7694E Headspace Sampler (Agilent Technologies). The microbial biofilm and its formation were observed by light microscopy (Olympus, BX51). Sterile glass slides were placed in LB culture supplemented with 13% ethanol. The culture was incubated without shaking at 60 °C for 24 h. The slides were then taken out of the bottles and washed

three times with H2O. The remaining cells were fixed with methanol for 10 min and stained with 2% (w/v) crystal violet for 5 min. Physiological and biochemical tests were carried out without ethanol addition at 60 °C. Conventional biochemical tests were performed according to standard methods (Smibert & Krieg, 1994). Anaerobic growth experiments were carried out in Hungate tubes. The ability to utilize diglyceride different carbon source was examined in basal medium (Pikuta et al., 2000). To minimize the effects of growth temperature and different media on bacterial fatty acid composition, all strains were uniformly incubated at 60 °C for 24 h on agar LB medium. Then, the analysis of cellular fatty acid methyl esters were performed according to the method described in the Sherlock Microbial Identification System manual (version4.0, MIDI). The final extracts were analyzed by GC/MS in scan mode, using an Agilent 7890 GC/5975 MSD system (Agilent Technologies).

After adjustment for multiple testing, only declines in sCD14 rem

After adjustment for multiple testing, only declines in sCD14 remained significant. selleck chemical In this randomized trial of women with central adiposity, a switch to RAL from a PI or NNRTI was associated with a statistically significant decline in sCD14. Further studies are needed to determine whether integrase inhibitors have improved monocyte activation profiles compared with PIs and/or NNRTIs, and whether measured differences between antiretroviral agents translate to demonstrable clinical benefit. “
“We assessed the efficiency of BCN Checkpoint in detecting new cases of HIV infection and efficiently linking newly diagnosed individuals to care.

This study analysed during 2007-2012 the number of tests performed and the number of persons tested in BCN Checkpoint, the HIV prevalence, global and in first visits, the capacity of HIV detection compared to the reported cases in MSM in Catalonia, and the linkage to Fer-1 molecular weight care rate. During the six years a total of 17.319 tests were performed and 618 HIV-positive cases were detected. Median prevalence

of clients who visited the centre for the first time was 5.4% (4.1-5.8). BCN Checkpoint detected 36.3% (35.0-40.4) of all reported cases in MSM during 2009-2011. Linkage to care was achieved directly in 90.5% of the cases and only 2.4% of cases were lost to follow-up. A community-based centre, addressed to a key population at risk, can be less effort consuming (time and funding) and show high efficiency in HIV detection and linkage to care. HIV/AIDS is still an important public health issue in the European Union (EU) and European Economic

Area (EEA), and the increasing number of HIV cases represents a great burden for public health organizations, health care systems, clinical services and people living with HIV (PLWHIV) themselves [1]. In Western and Central Europe, the HIV epidemic is characterized by a continuous increase in the proportion of new diagnoses attributable to sexual transmission, with sex between selleck inhibitor men the predominant reported transmission mode, accounting for 39% of HIV diagnoses in 2011 [2]. While in recent years the number of HIV diagnoses among injecting drug users has decreased, as has the number of diagnoses attributable to heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission, the number of cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) has increased [2]. Le Vu et al. [3] demonstrated that the incidence of HIV infection in MSM in France is approximately 60 times higher than in the general French population and 167 times higher than in heterosexual French men. For these reasons, the European Commission [4] considers MSM to be the highest priority group for interventions to combat HIV infection in the EU and neighbouring countries.

, 2011) In each case, the results of the real time PCR method we

, 2011). In each case, the results of the real time PCR method were in excellent agreement with the respective independent method. To give a short overview, genomic DNA was used as a template in a conventional PCR reaction to amplify a fragment of about 1 kbp. A dilution series of this fragment was prepared and used for real time PCR analysis. A fragment of about 300 bp, internal to the standard fragment, was amplified. The results were used to generate a standard curve. To determine the genome copy

number, cells were lysed and a dilution series of the resulting cell extract was analyzed using real time PCR in parallel to the standards. The results allowed calculating the number of genome click here copies in the cell extract and, in combination with the cell density of the culture, the ploidy level. The following points have to be optimized for every new species under investigation and were optimized for the three selleck products species of cyanobacteria used in this study: (1) the cell density has

to be quantified with a very low variance, (2) it has to be verified that culture growth is highly reproducible, (3) the method of cell disruption has to be about 100% effective yet leaving the genomic DNA intact, and (4) the real time PCR has to be truly exponential. For cyanobacteria, the method for cell disruption turned out to be the most critical point. Several standard methods (sonification, enzymatic murein digestion, ‘normal shaking’ with glass beads) could not be used, either because the efficiency of cell lysis was too low or because damage of the genomic DNA was too high. Shaking the cells in a Speedmill with 0.1 mm glass beads led to satisfactory results, lysis efficiency PD-1 inhibitor was higher than 90%, and the genomic DNA was only slightly damaged (fragment sizes from 4 kbp to >20 kbp, data not shown). The amount of beads and shaking time were optimized for every species. To exemplify the results, Fig. S1 (Supporting Information) shows one typical example of a real

time PCR analysis (Fig. S1a), a standard curve (Fig. S1b), a melting point analysis, and an analytical agarose gel of the analysis fragments (Fig. S1c, d). At least three independent cultures were analyzed (and each culture was analyzed at least in triplicates), and average values and standard deviations (SD) were calculated. Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 grew with a doubling time of 24 h. An average growth curve of three cultures is shown in Fig. S2. The results of genome quantification of three independent cultures are summarized in Table 1. At an OD750 nm of 0.6, S. elongatus contained about four genome copies per cell and thus the species is oligoploid. This is termed ‘exponential phase’, although growth of the cultures was not truly exponential, but the OD750 nm of 0.6 was prior to the onset of the linear growth phase (compare Fig. S2).