The same group also identified a homologue of the C  elegans mult

The same group also identified a homologue of the C. elegans multi-membrane spanning, RNA importing protein SID-1. The gene encoding this protein contains 21 exons and spans over 50 kb to potentially selleck chemicals encode a 115 556 Mr protein (SmSID-1) (38). These findings indicate that an intact RNAi

pathway has evolved in schistosomes. It has now also been shown that RNAi can be experimentally applied in schistosomes and appropriate transformation protocols have been adapted and developed (Table 2). The first report of successful RNAi in schistosomes was published in 2003 (40) showing that soaking of S. mansoni cercariae in dsRNA resulted in silencing of the major gut-associated proteinase, cathepsin B (SmCB1 or Sm31). In the same year, Boyle and colleagues (41) reported the successful silencing of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and of a glucose transporter (SGTP1) gene in sporocysts of S. mansoni. Here for the first time a functional phenotype was detectable as the exposure of the parasite to SGTP1

dsRNA reduced the ability of sporocysts to take up glucose by 40%. These two publications clearly confirmed that RNAi can be utilized in schistosomes and that the silencing effect in larval stages of the parasite was potent and specific. In short succession, RNAi studies in schistosomes were published by a number of groups. The proteins attracting the most interest were proteolytic enzymes (metallo-, cysteine, and serine proteases), genes belonging to signalling pathways implicated in adult worm pairing and/or egg deposition, or genes playing a role in reproduction. These groups of proteins are essential in the life cycle of schistosomes and therefore are potential targets for

novel anti-parasite chemotherapy and immunotherapy. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand the role of signal transduction pathways in schistosomes and their role in the interaction of the parasite with its host environment and amongst themselves. One such example is the TGF-β signalling pathway that seems to be essential for schistosome embryogenesis. Schistosomes are exceptional amongst trematodes in the way that they have evolved separate sexes, and Oxymatrine the sexual development of the female requires constant contact with the male. Blocking components of the parasite TGF-β signalling pathway by RNAi would likely abolish worm pairing and egg production, and as a consequence, egg-associated pathology will not develop. This makes this pathway a potential target for novel intervention strategies for transmission and disease control (42–45). Indeed, Freitas et al. (42) described that RNAi-mediated knock-down of SmInAct (a member of the TGF-beta superfamily) expression in eggs led to a developmental arrest indicating a role of this protein during embryogenesis of schistosomes. Another signal transduction pathway was investigated by Beckmann et al. (46). The authors silenced a Syk kinase, which is expressed in the gonads of adult schistosomes.

Using a murine model for psoriasis, it has recently been shown th

Using a murine model for psoriasis, it has recently been shown that IL-23-activated dermal γδ T cells are the major source of IL-17 in the skin [47]. It has also been reported Selleckchem PR-171 that γδ T cells may have a pathogenic role in the development of EAE as TCRδ−/− mice have reduced disease severity in the EAE model, especially in the later disease stages [48, 49]. Furthermore, in an adoptive transfer model of EAE, depletion of γδ T cells reduced the severity and delayed the onset of disease [6] [50]. In addition, IL-17-secreting γδ T cells have been shown to accumulate in the brains of mice

with EAE [6, 51]. IL-17-producing γδ T cells have also been implicated in the pathology

of CIA and uveitis [6, 9, 52]. In both CIA and EAE, the Vγ4 subset of γδ T cells has been shown to be the major source of IL-17, and this IL-17-producing AZD9668 manufacturer population accumulates in the brains of mice with EAE and in the draining lymph nodes of mice with CIA [6, 9]. As well as contributing to the pool of IL-17 during the development of autoimmunity, IL-17 and IL-21 production by γδ T cells may also help to initiate or augment IL-17 production by αβ T-cell activation, thus γδ T cells may act to prime Th17-cell responses [37]. Although much of the evidence to date suggests that γδ T cells have a pathogenic role in autoimmunity, it has also been shown that intraepithelial γδ T cells play a protective role in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelium [53] although the mechanistic explanations for these

different roles are currently unknown. The role of IL-17 in antitumor defence is still unclear, with evidence of both pro- and antitumor effects. γδ T cells are one of the most important sources of IL-17 production induced by dying tumor cells during chemotherapy [32]. It has been shown, as discussed above, that IL-1 plays a crucial role in stimulating IL-17 production by γδ T cells and it has also been shown that IL-1-driven ADP ribosylation factor γδ T-cell IL-17 production plays a role in antitumor immunity [32]. Furthermore, TCRδ−/− and Vγ4/Vγ6−/− mice have a significant reduction in their ability to respond to chemotherapy. γδ T-cell IL-17 production was found to be essential for the control of tumor growth via chemoattraction of CD8+ T cells and subsequent CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ production [32]. The ability of γδ T cells to act in an APC-like manner has been exploited in their use as immunotherapeutics for cancer. The aim of cancer immunotherapy is to overcome immunosuppression at the site of the tumor by skewing the cytokine repertoire in favor of proinflammatory responses. Ex vivo activated γδ T cells have been shown to control tumor growth [54].

Instead, we found lower levels of CD16+ cells in the pool of mono

Instead, we found lower levels of CD16+ cells in the pool of monocytes in our APS I cohort. CD16, also termed ‘FcγRIII’, is a member of the Fc-receptor family (for review, see [46]). This receptor is specific for binding small IgG complexes, which should be constantly forming in APS I as they have high titres of a plethora of autoantibodies. Crosslinking CD16 can induce production of TNFα and IL1β in monocytes. It has been reported that CD16+ monocytes and CD16− monocytes have the same capability of

differentiating into DC, but the expression of specific DC markers like CD86, CD11a and CD11c and their potential to secrete IL-4 and proinflammatory cytokines differ [31, 32]. The downregulation of CD16 on APS I monocytes could be a result of massive immune complex binding to the receptor followed by internalization. Our studies Crizotinib supplier showed contradictory results for many immune cell subpopulations compared with earlier reports. Several of the cellular abnormalities described here or previously are most probably not the result of thymic malfunction but the reflection of longstanding autoimmunity and inflammation caused by C. albicans infection. As the study groups cannot be large because of the rarity of the disease, the results of immunophenotyping

may depend on the duration and activity beta-catenin activation of the disease components in studied patients. In conclusion, we here report the most comprehensive immunophenotypic study which has been published on patients with APS I and relatives. Our data suggest that patients with APS I have disturbances in the Treg compartment, less CCR6+CXCR3+ Th cells and selleck kinase inhibitor less CD16+ monocytes, which may explain their propensity for autoimmune manifestations. We will express our gratitude to the patients, relatives and healthy controls for donating blood samples for the study. The doctors Kristian Fougner, Jens Bollerslev, Kristian Løvås

and Bjørn Nedrebø are thanked for recruiting patients to the study. We will furthermore thank Hajirah Muneer, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, for excellent technical skills in the handling of cell samples. The study was supported by grants from Helse Vest and the European Regional Fund and Archimedes Foundation and Estonian Science Foundation grant 8358. Anette Bøe Wolff has been a post-doctoral fellow of the The Research Council of Norway. Table S1 Demographics of APS I families included in the immunophenotypic studies. Table S2 Immunophenotyping of APS I patients, relatives and healthy controls. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.

Standard induction immunosuppression with intravenous methylpredn

Standard induction immunosuppression with intravenous methylprednisolone 1 g and basiliximab 20 mg was administered pre-operatively and basiliximab

again on day 4. Oral prednisolone 30 mg daily, mycophenolate X-396 concentration mofetil 1 g twice daily and tacrolimus 0.075 mg/kg twice daily were commenced post-operatively. Trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole as pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis was also commenced. In the evening of day 4, the patient complained of bilateral hand, wrist, elbow and knee arthralgia that he felt was consistent with an RA flare. There was no evidence of joint erythema or effusions, and no fever or skin rash on examination. The symptoms were relatively mild, so he was observed and discharged on day 7. By day 8 he required admission for worsening arthralgia, reduced mobility and unstable angina. The angina was thought related to anaemia (Hb 90 g/L), and managed effectively with blood transfusion and anti-anginal medication. Extensive investigation of the arthralgia followed. The patient remained systemically well and denied any new rash or fevers. Examination revealed symmetrical polyarthritis affecting the wrists, metacarpophalageal joints, elbows, shoulders and knees, with joint-line tenderness and joint effusions. Initial investigations were: creatinine of 115 μmol/L showing stable graft function, C-reactive protein (CRP) of 232 mg/L (previously

14.4 mg/L on day 2), ESR of 105 mm/h, and trough tacrolimus level of 12.5 ng/mL (slightly

above target range). Further investigations selleck chemicals included: PJ34 HCl rheumatoid factor (RF) of 62 IU/mL, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) of >250 U/mL, uric acid of 0.39 mmol/L, and three negative blood cultures. Hand X-rays supported bilateral and symmetrical chronic deforming and erosive inflammatory arthropathy, consistent with RA. The patient had not undergone anti-CCP testing previously, nor had RF testing for over 10 years. A joint aspirate of the right knee revealed an elevated polymorph count, without evidence of crystal arthropathy or septic arthritis. Differential diagnosis included infection-related arthralgia, polyarticular gout, RA flare, or a medication-related adverse reaction. Gout was thought unlikely as no crystals were present on joint aspirate and the patient had no history of gout. Initial management included prednisolone increase from 30 to 50 mg daily, and further investigations were undertaken. Following prompt symptomatic improvement, prednisolone dose was lowered to 40 mg daily in lieu of significant hyperglycaemia. He was discharged home on day 14, but unfortunately represented 2 days later unable to walk, with worsening severe polyarthritis requiring readmission. Graft function and tacrolimus level remained stable. Investigations and further questioning specific for infection followed.

The migration of neutrophils to the inflammatory site seems

The migration of neutrophils to the inflammatory site seems Buparlisib datasheet important for microbicidal activity, particularly against hyphae. Our observations suggest that inocula with conidiogenous cells are associated with in vivo transformation into sclerotic bodies and that local immune response involved with host resistance to experimental F. pedrosoi-infection

is primarily mediated by neutrophils as observed in histological sections. “
“A possible correlation between the presence of discontinuous fringes and high virulence has been previously suggested. The aim of this study was to compare the pathogenicity of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis with continuous and discontinuous fringes morphotypes on mice. For C. albicans, two discontinuous fringe morphotype isolates (PN 69, PN 74), two continuous fringe morphotype isolates (N 60, N 33) and one reference strain were used. For C. dubliniensis, three discontinuous fringe morphotype isolates (97487, 97464, 97519), two continuous fringe morphotype isolates

(97040, 98026) and one reference strain were used. Swiss male mice were inoculated with a standardised suspension of the microorganisms and observed for 35 days. The pathogenicity of the isolates was analysed according to parameters proposed previously. Three isolates were considered pathogenic: PN 74, N 60 and 98026. Strain N 60 killed the highest amount of mice (80%). Animals inoculated with C. albicans did not show differences on survival estimate. Candida dubliniensis 98026 was more pathogenic than samples 97464 and 97519. On the other hand, the sample 97487 showed a higher pathogenicity when compared with PF-01367338 clinical trial 97040 (Kaplan–Meier test, P = 0.008).

Strains with continuous fringe morphotypes were also Diflunisal associated with Candida sp. virulence in vivo. “
“The present study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of essential oils (EO) of Cymbopogon martini, Chenopodium ambrosioides and of their combination against dermatophytes and some filamentous fungi in vitro as well as in vivo using a guinea pig model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of EOs and of their combination were found between 150 and 500 ppm, while those of known antifungal drugs ranged from 1000 to 5500 ppm. EO ointments were prepared and applied against induced ringworm in guinea pig model and disease removal was observed in 7–21 days, and the hair samples showed negative results for fungal culture in a time-dependent manner after the application of EO ointments. Chemical constituents of EOs were determined by GC–MS. Both the EOs and their combination displayed strong antifungal effects. The results provide a scientific validation for the use of these EOs in the treatment of dermatophyte infections and may be recommended as an alternative to synthetic drug for topical application. “
“The opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida albicans and the emerging non-albicans Candida spp.

Generally perceived as an immune stimulatory cytokine, IFN-γ can

Generally perceived as an immune stimulatory cytokine, IFN-γ can also induce inhibitory molecule expression including B7-H1 (PD-L1), IDO, and

arginase on multiple cell populations including DCs [[16]]. IFN-γ, originally termed “macrophage activating factor,” was first described (along with IFN-α and IFN-β) as a mediator that interfered with viral replication [[11]]. IFN-γ is produced primarily by NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and NKT cells. In many of these populations, IL-12 and IL-18 can induce or further increase the production of IFN-γ. IDO and IFNs, by depleting the essential amino acid Trp, play key roles in host antiviral defense and in resistance to intracellular pathogens [[9]]. However, the same IFN–IDO axis is also capable of downregulating immune responses,

to minimize immune-mediated tissue and organ damage in the very context of infectious Buparlisib in vivo immunity ([[17]] and reviewed in [[18]]), infection-associated auto-immunity [[19]], and overreactive inflammatory responses [[13]]. This ancestral counter-regulatory mechanism has, with time, evolved and expanded during phylogenesis, well beyond the original concept of “immunosuppression by Trp starvation” [[20]]. First, the products of Trp catabolism (i.e. kynurenines, including the first byproduct, l-kynurenine) have acquired direct immunoregulatory functions [[21, 22]]. Second, the combined effects of Trp starvation and kynurenines (behaving as activating ligands of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expressed by naïve T cells [[23]]) have acquired a potential for driving T-cell differentiation towards a Treg phenotype [[7]]. Finally, the IDO mechanism has become a pivotal means of preserving local homeostasis in the transitional response from innate Gemcitabine order to acquired immunity [[24, 25]]. Yet, there occur instances in the literature documenting

the involvement of IDO in the pathogenesis of Th2 responses and B cell-mediated autoimmunity [[26, 27]]. While such novel properties made IDO pivotal in others forms of immune dysregulation, including allergy [[28]], the broadness and potency of its effects required that its antiinflammatory action be, in turn, finely tuned by regulatory proteolysis [[29, 30]]. In mammals, these properties have turned IDO into a versatile regulator of the dynamic balance between immunity and tolerance, as required by acquired immunity and immune surveillance mechanisms [[31]]. As such, IDO has become a master regulator of tolerance to self [[32]] and feto-maternal tolerance [[33]], both conditions dominated by Treg cells. The activity of Treg cells is tightly connected with that of TGF-β (reviewed in [[34]]) [[35]].

Flow cytometry analysis (Figure 4a) revealed a reduction in the s

Flow cytometry analysis (Figure 4a) revealed a reduction in the surface expression of MHC class II (I-a) on AE-pe-DCs isolated from AE-infected mice. This effect was more pronounced on AE-pe-DCs from the late stage than from the early stage of infection, as compared to naïve pe-DCs (from noninfected control mice). mRNA expression levels of different molecules implicated in the MHC class find more II (I-a) pathway and the formation of MHC

(I-a)–antigenic peptide complex [CIITA, Li, H-2Ma, I-aβ and Cat-S] as well as β-actin (as a housekeeping gene) in both naive pe-DCs and AE-pe-DCs were determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Figure 4(b) shows the ratio of normalized integrated intensity values of the above-mentioned genes expressed by AE-pe-DCs vs. naive pe-DCs. The relative gene expression levels of the respective molecules (CIITA, Li, H-2Ma, I-aβ and Cat-S) appeared down-regulated in AE-pe-DCs when compared to naive pe-DCs. Consequently, the down-regulation of different gene expression levels contributed to the understanding of the very low level of MHC class II molecule

expression on the surface of AE-pe-DCs. Excretory/secretory products (E/S) and/or metacestode vesicular fluid (V/F) components were investigated for their putative involvement in the reduction of Ridaforolimus research buy functional MHC class II (Ia) in vitro. BMDCs were separately treated with E/S products and V/F for 2 h. Isolated membrane-associated proteins were investigated by Western blotting with anti-MHC class II Dipeptidyl peptidase antibodies (Figure 5). Both products reduced banding signals in comparison with that of mock-treated control BMDCs. These findings suggested that E/S products, and to a lesser extent also V/F, modified intact MHC class II (Ia) molecule expressed on the surface of BMDCs. The precedent

findings prompted us to investigate whether AE-pe-DCs (compared to naïve pe-DCs) affect differently a Con A-induced proliferative response of naïve CD4+ pe-T cells. These latter cells were Con A stimulated in the presence of increasing numbers of naive pe-DCs or AE-pe-DCs, respectively. Figure 6 showed that increasing numbers of naive pe-DCs enhanced a Con A-driven proliferation of naive CD4+ pe-T cells. Conversely, AE-pe-DCs failed to enhance such a proliferation, and even at relatively high numbers, we observed a decreased proliferation of naive CD4+ pe-T cells. Overall, it appears that AE-pe-DCs, characterized by a high level of TGF-β mRNA and a reduced surface expression of MHC class II molecules and co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), displayed a suppressive effect on Con A-driven proliferation of naïve CD4+ pe-T cells. For the metazoan parasite E.

The inability to formulate a unifying hypothesis is likely owing

The inability to formulate a unifying hypothesis is likely owing to the fact

that the processes behind maternal acceptance of the fetus are complex, multifactorial, and often compensatory.2–10 One approach to move the field forward is BGB324 ic50 to incorporate insights gained from comparative studies of multiple mammalian species.11–13 For centuries, scientific study of the horse (Equus caballus) has contributed to the medical community’s understanding of anatomy and physiology.14 In recent years, studies of equine pregnancy have likewise advanced the fields of reproduction and immunology. As we discuss later, the horse is a natural model for immune recognition of the fetus. The pregnant mare demonstrates a clear immune response to placental alloantigens, thus addressing the central question of whether the mother is immunologically ignorant of, or tolerant to, her gestating fetus. This review

discusses the ways in which the horse has contributed to our understanding of pregnancy immunology and how equine research can advance the field. Here, we focus on the events of early pregnancy, as that is the period when there is abundant evidence for engagement and alteration of the maternal immune response. We first discuss the pertinent anatomical and physiological aspects of early horse pregnancy. We then discuss the concept of materno–fetal tolerance as it pertains to the horse. Finally, we describe resources that make the horse a valuable species for the study of reproductive immunology and address pressing unanswered questions in our understanding of equine pregnancy. The equine placenta is characterized as diffuse and epitheliochorial, with six intact tissue layers between the maternal and fetal blood supplies.15 The majority of the interface between the uterus and placenta is formed by the tight apposition of the endometrial epithelium with the non-invasive trophoblasts of the allantochorion.16 This attachment occurs by the interdigitation of highly branched allantochorion villi with the DNA ligase facing endometrium

to form microcotyledons. The microcotyledons, located near capillaries in the maternal and placental tissues, act as the primary units for nutrient exchange between mother and fetus.17 In this regard, the horse is similar to other species with epitheliochorial placentation, such as the pig. However, the equine placenta is distinguished by the specialized, highly invasive trophoblasts of the chorionic girdle. The chorionic girdle, first described in 1897,18 is so named because it forms a circumferential band around the developing conceptus (Fig. 1a,b). It is first visible at approximately 25 days of gestation, following the fusion of the allantois and chorion, which form the allantochorion membrane.

6) These results reinforce the association between methionine at

6). These results reinforce the association between methionine at codon 129 and the production of type

1 PrPres and valine at codon 129 and the production of type 2 PrPres. BSE is the only animal prion strain with demonstrated pathogenicity for humans. While it is tempting to suggest that scrapie might represent the animal reservoir that results in some cases of sCJD, there is no epidemiological evidence to support this hypothesis. The pathogenicity of new or newly described animal prion diseases for humans selleck chemical is unclear and this is particularly true for H- and L-type BSE, atypical scrapie and for chronic wasting disease (CWD), all of which are probably consumed. Human susceptibility has been modeled by attempted transmission to (humanized) transgenic mice with sometimes conflicting results, depending on the transgenic model used and depending upon whether central or peripheral tissues are examined.[102-106] We have attempted to establish whether PMCA can model the molecular component of these hypothetical cross-species transmission events.[107] The existing data correspond well with the established facts. First, PrPSc in vCJD brain samples amplifies

find more most efficiently in humanized mouse MM substrate, less efficiently in MV substrate and not at all in VV. Cattle BSE PrPres is less efficient than vCJD, but shows the same substrate genotypic preference. Sheep scrapie fails to amplify AMP deaminase detectably in any of the three substrates; however, sheep BSE PrPres does amplify, again with a codon 129 preference for methionine (Fig. 7). We are currently extending this approach to encompass atypical scrapie, H- and L-type

BSE and CWD using human rather than humanized PMCA substrates. In the same way that animal reservoirs cannot be completely excluded as causes of individual sCJD cases, neither can other environmental sources, such as medical procedures. The known routes of iatrogenic CJD acquisition are historically growth hormone therapy, dura mater grafting, corneal grafting and certain highly specialized neurosurgical procedures. The secondary transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion and experimental evidence showing the efficiency of the transfusion of viable blood cells between scrapie and BSE-infected and naive sheep have prompted a reappraisal of transfusion-transmitted CJD, including consideration being given to the possibility of prion blood testing or filtration.[25, 26, 108, 109] Blood transfusion is the original and most extensively used cellular therapy, but we may be on the threshold of a new era of cellular therapies based on embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell technologies.

Forty-seven patients with anti-GBM disease were enrolled in this

Forty-seven patients with anti-GBM disease were enrolled in this study. Forty-eight healthy individuals were used as normal controls. The levels of serum BAFF and APRIL were assessed using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. The association between the levels of serum BAFF and APRIL, and the clinical and pathological parameters were further evaluated. The serum levels FK228 chemical structure of BAFF and APRIL in patients with anti-GBM disease were significantly

higher than that in normal controls (12.3 ± 14.1 ng/mL vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001; 19.1 ± 22.9 ng/mL vs. 1.6 ± 4.6 ng/mL, P < 0.001), respectively. The levels of serum APRIL were correlated with the titres of anti-GBM antibodies (r = 0.347, P = 0.041), and the levels of serum BAFF were associated with the percentage of glomeruli with crescents (r = 0.482, P = 0.015) in patients with anti-GBM disease. The levels of serum BAFF and APRIL were raised in patients with anti-GBM disease and might

be associated with disease activity and kidney damage. “
“Angiotensin-(1–7) (Ang-(1–7)) opposes angiotensin-II-induced cell growth, matrix accumulation and fibrosis in cardiac tissue. However, the role of Ang-(1–7) in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is uncertain. This study observed the effects of Ang-(1–7), on its own or in combination with losartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, on five-sixths Proteasome structure nephrectomized rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent five-sixths nephrectomy, Amylase and then were either untreated, treated with Ang-(1–7), treated with losartan, or treated with a combination therapy of Ang-(1–7) and

losartan. After 8 weeks, renal function was assessed by measuring systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine and proteinuria. The effect of nephrectomy on the renin–angiotensin system was examined by measuring plasma levels of Ang-II and Ang-(1–7). The extent of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff staining and Masson-trichrome staining. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibronectin and angiopoietins-Tie-2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. In the groups of treated rats, serum creatinine, proteinuria and markers of glomerulosclerosis, such as fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, were ameliorated compared with the untreated, nephrectomized rats. Plasma Ang-(1–7) levels were elevated in all treatment groups, but the plasma Ang-II levels were reduced in the Ang-(1–7)-treated group and the combination therapy group. The ratio of Ang-1/Ang-2 was increased in the combination therapy group compared with two other treatment groups. Ang-(1–7) ameliorated the renal injury of nephrectomized rats. The combination of Ang-(1–7) treatment alongside losartan exerted a superior effect to that of Ang-(1–7) alone on regression of glomerulosclerosis.