g , butyrate) Supplementing the diet with probiotic bacteria can

g., butyrate). Supplementing the diet with probiotic bacteria can increase small intestine Repotrectinib mw absorption of nutrients [14–16] and electrolytes [17], and when added to culture media increase calcium uptake by Caco-2 cells [18]. Microarray analyses have revealed that long-term exposure

to commensal bacteria and specific strains of probiotics (i.e., Lactobacillus GG) up-regulates genes involved in postnatal intestinal maturation, angiogenesis, and mucosal barrier functions, whereas genes associated with apoptosis and inflammation were down-regulated [19]. Absorption of glucose by enterocytes is mediated in part by the concentrative, high affinity, sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1), with rates of uptake dependent on the densities and activities of the SGLT1. Historically, studies of glucose uptake regulation have focused on the patterns of gene expression (genomic regulation), leading to changes

YM155 supplier in the abundances of transporter proteins. This include responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharides [20]. Enterocytes also have the ability to rapidly (<10 min) and reversibly regulate nutrient absorption independent of changes in the total cellular abundance of transporter Saracatinib clinical trial proteins [21–24]. This non-genomic regulation of nutrient transporters allows enterocytes to adapt to the transient changes in luminal nutrient concentrations that occur before, during,

and after the processing of meals. Previous studies have reported the influences of probiotic bacteria on nutrient absorption, but have used prolonged periods of administration or exposure (6 h to days and weeks). As a result, the reported responses can be attributed to genomic regulation of the transporters. The present study demonstrates for the first time that metabolites produced by probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus and four other species of Lactobacilli upregulate enterocyte glucose transport within 10 min of exposure using Caco-2 cells as a model Fossariinae for the intestine. Results Growth of Bacteria Based on increases in absorption measured at 600 nm, the CDM-fructose and CDM-mannose elicited similar patterns of growth for L. acidophilus (Figure 1). However, after 80 h of anaerobic culture densities in CDM-fructose and CDM-mannose (108 CFU/ml) were lower compared to MRS broth (109 CFU/ml; P < 0.0001). Although CDM-glucose elicited an earlier increase in growth compared with CDM with fructose and mannose (shorter lag time), densities at 80 h were not higher compared with CDM-fructose and CDM-mannose cultures. The CDM alone or with arabinose, ribose, and xylose did not support the growth of L. acidophilus. Figure 1 Growth curves of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

In contrast, most of the C coli isolates (62%) were grouped into

In contrast, most of the C. coli isolates (62%) were grouped into only three fla-PFGE types, suggesting less diversity among C. coli. Bae et check details al. [44] demonstrated that PFGE types of antimicrobial-resistant C. coli from cattle were less diverse than those of C. jejuni, and Nayak et al. [35] reported a similar effect

among antimicrobial-resistant C. coli and C. jejuni from turkey farms. Wesley et al. [7] described the opposite case, that C. coli from turkeys were more diverse than C. jejuni based on PFGE, although antimicrobial resistance was not determined. The Campylobacter isolates examined in this study originated from turkey carcasses at either the pre or post chill stages of processing. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin or erythromycin resistance was similar from either stage in plant A. In contrast, Berrang et al. found that the numbers of erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni on broiler carcasses were reduced after chilling, and suggested further study to determine whether this resistance influences the ability of Campylobacter to endure immersion chilling [45]. In the current study, several of the same fla-PFGE types were recovered from both stages, indicating that some ciprofloxacin- and/or

erythromycin-resistant strains were present beyond chilling. Information about antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on post-chill turkey product is limited and further study is needed. Most of the fla-PFGE types (36 of 37) in the current study were unique to a particular plant. Similarly, Rasschaert et al. [46] demonstrated that most fla-PFGE types obtained from broilers at three processing plants were unique within a particular plant. The two Dabrafenib order plants participating in the current study were located approximately 150 miles apart in different states and were not likely to receive turkeys from the same farms. Isolation of the same fla-PFGE type (M10) from both plants may suggest a common source of this type, and warrants further investigation. However, it must be noted that the isolates subtyped for this study comprised a small portion of the entire Campylobacter collection (n = 801) tested, which may

influence the frequency of fla-PFGE types obtained and is a limitation of our study. Clustering using PFGE alone or fla-PFGE in conjunction with resistance learn more profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into different groups. The diversity ADAMTS5 of genetic profiles, in conjunction with differences in resistance profiles by species, further supports the importance of considering C. jejuni and C. coli separately in epidemiological investigations [7, 30, 47, 48]. Although C. jejuni is implicated in most campylobacteriosis cases, human illness attributed to C. coli is also recognized [13, 47, 49, 50]. C. coli is often associated with pigs; but was prevalent in turkeys in our previous study [8] and those of others [7, 51]. In Denmark, poultry, but not pigs, were associated with human C. coli infections [48].

First a decision is taken whether the limb can be saved If the l

First a decision is taken whether the limb can be saved. If the limb can be preserved the decision whether it should be saved should come in concert with the patient. The tradeoffs involved with protracted treatment course of limb salvage versus immediate amputation and prosthetic fitting should be made clear to the patient. Saving the limb, often comes at a great cost. Multiple operations to obtain bony reunion and soft tissue coverage are often necessary. Chronic pain and drug addiction also are common problems of limb salvage because patients endure multiple hospital admissions and surgery, isolation from their family and friends,

and unemployment [15, 16]. In the end, GDC-0068 solubility dmso despite heroic efforts the limb ultimately could require an amputation or a “”successfully salvaged limb may be chronically painful or functionless [17, 18]. The worst case scenario occurs when a limb must be amputated after the patient has endured multiple operations of an unsuccessful salvage or after years of pain following a “”successful”" salvage [18]. On the other hand, early amputation and prosthetic fitting has been shown to be associated with decreased morbidity, fewer operations, shorter hospital course, decreased hospital costs, shorter rehabilitation in cases of traumatic limb injury [15]. Thus, it is important to present all information from

the very beginning click here so that the patient is able to make educated decisions regarding which course to follow. The subjective importance of body image for the patient, the possibility of prolonged hospitalization, financial burden and possible social isolation should be discussed with the patient in order to help them make real informed decisions [15, 16]. Prompt initiation of antimicrobial treatment covering aerobic and anaerobic organism is critical. In fact, early antimicrobial treatment was initiated in all cases with preservation of the limb after operation for gas gangrene. Initial empirical antibiotic treatment should cover Clostridia, over Gram positive cocci aerobes and anaerobes. The optimal combinations

of antibiotics as well as the duration of the treatment have not been defined in appropriate clinical trials so far. Ampicillin-sulbactam or piperacillin-tazobactam or ticarcillin-clavulate in combination with clindamycin or metronidazone are suggested empiric regimens, whereas antibiotic treatment should be tailored according to the susceptibility results [1, 19]. Specific treatment for post traumatic gas gangrene due to C. perfrigens should consist of Penicillin (QNZ price 3-4MIU every 4 hours i.v.) plus Clindamycin (600-900 mg every 8 hours i.v.). In cases of spontaneous gas gangrene due to C. septicum antimicrobial treatment should include vancomycin (1 g every 12 hours i.v.) or metronidazole (500 mg every 8 hours i.v.) because this species may be resistant to penicillin or clindamycin [19].

Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011, 36:11085–11092 CrossRef 27 Deepak FL

Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011, 36:11085–11092.CrossRef 27. Deepak FL, John NS, Govindaraj A, Kulkarni GU, Rao CNR: Nature and electronic properties of Y-junctions in CNTs and N-doped CNTs SP600125 order obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallic

precursors. Chem Phys Lett 2005, 41:468–473.CrossRef 28. Charpentier PA, Maguire A, Wan WK: Surface check details modification of polyester to produce a bacterial cellulose-based vascular prosthetic device. Appl Surf Sci 2006, 252:6360–6367.CrossRef 29. Namgung S, Baik KY, Park J, Hong S: Controlling the growth and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by the arrangement of individual carbon nanotubes. ACS Nano 2011, 5:7383–7390.CrossRef 30. Yang W, Cui FZ, Qing XL: Behavior of phosphatidylcholine adsorption on CN x coated PTFE films. Curr Appl Phys 2006, 6:827–832.CrossRef 31. Ferrari AC, Rodil SE, Robertson J: Interpretation of infrared and Raman spectra of amorphous carbon nitrides. Phys Rev Biol 2003, 67:155306–155325.CrossRef 32. Horbett TA: The role of adsorbed proteins in animal cell adhesion. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 1994, 2:225–240.CrossRef 33. Takemoto S, Kusudo Y, Tsuru K, Hayakawa S, Osaka A, Takashima S: Selective protein find more adsorption and blood compatibility of hydroxy-carbonate apatites. J

Biomed Mater Res 2004, 69A:544–551.CrossRef 34. Yokota T, Terai T, Kobayashi T, Iwaki M: Cell adhesion to nitrogen-doped DLCS Calpain fabricated by plasma-based ion implantation and deposition method. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 2006, 242:48–50.CrossRef 35. Lacerda SHDP, Semberova J, Holada K, Simakova O, Hudson

SD, Simak J: Carbon nanotubes activate store-operated calcium entry in human blood platelets. ACS Nano 2011, 5:5808–5813.CrossRef 36. Baurschmidt P, Schaldach M: Alloplastic materials for heart-valve prostheses. Med Biol Eng Comput 1980, 18:496–502.CrossRef 37. Owens AP, Mackman N: Tissue factor and thrombosis: the clot starts here. Thromb Haemost 2010, 104:432–439.CrossRef 38. Zhang L, Chen M, Li ZY, Chen DH, Pan SR: Effect of annealing on structure and haemocompatibility of tetrahedral amorphous hydrogenated carbon films. Mater Lett 2008, 62:1040–1043.CrossRef 39. Gao JC, Li LC, Wang Y, Qiao LY: Corrosion resistance of alkali heat treated magnesium in bionics simulated body fluid. Rare Metal Mater Eng 2005, 30:903–907. 40. Alanazil AS, Hirakuri KJ: Blood compatibility of DLC films. Eur Cells Mater 2010, 20:15–20. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DL and HG designed this work. MZ, YC, and XL performed the experiments; MZ collected and analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. JD supported the experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Furthermore, it has been speculated that their tannase activities

Furthermore, it has been speculated that their tannase activities AZD2014 purchase in the human alimentary tract have significant effects on pharmacological aspects of dietary tannins that are prevalent in beverages and teas [8]. Recently, we identified tanLpl (=lp_2956) within the genome of L. plantarum WCFS1 and found it to be similar to a known bacterial tannase gene in Staphylococcus lugdunensis[9]. Subsequently, tanLpl was expressed in E. coli[9, 10] to show remarkable differences to characterized fungal tannases. However, little is known about genes responsible for tannase activities of L. MX69 ic50 paraplantarum and L. pentosus. In this

study, we aim to identify tannase genes in other lactobacilli, such as L. paraplantarum and L. pentosus and to compare them with tanLpl in L. plantarum as well as to distinguish their structural and enzymological characteristics. Methods Bacterial strains, plasmids, and media Bacterial strains used in the study and their respective sources are listed in supplementary Additional file 1: Table S1. A total of 27 tannase-producing closely related Lactobacillus species isolates, consisting of 8 isolates of L. plantarum, 9 isolates of L. paraplantarum, 10 isolates of L. pentosus were used to study the identification of their tannase encoding genes and the determination of those sequences. The taxonomic identity of L. plantarum, L. paraplantarum, and L. pentosus

were determined by a 16S/23S rRNA gene spacer region targeted PCR assay [6]. Among them, L. plantarum ATCC 14917T, L. paraplantarum ARS-1620 NOS120 and L. pentosus 21A-3 were used as DNA donor strains for the gene cloning and expression of each of the tannases. Escherichia coli HST08 (TaKaRa Bio Inc., Shiga, Japan) strain was employed for recombinant plasmid construction. Bacillus others subtilis RIK 1285 (TaKaRa) was used as the host for gene expression and enzyme purification. The pGEM®-T Easy

cloning vector (Promega, Madison, USA) and pBE-S vector (TaKaRa) were utilized for the gene cloning for DNA sequencing and heterologous expression of tannase encoding genes in B. subtilis, respectively. The lactobacilli strains were cultured statically at 37°C in MRS broth (Difco, Detroit, USA) or on MRS supplemented with 1.5% agar before the experiment. Chemicals Methyl gallate (MG), epicatechin gallate (ECg) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) catechin gallate (Cg), and gallocatechin gallate (GCg), used as substrates for enzyme assay of tannases, were obtained from Wako Pure Chemical Industries., Ltd. (Osaka, Japan). In addition, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O–(3-O–methyl) gallate (EGCg3″Me) was purchased from Nagara Science (Gifu, Japan). Structures of substrates are shown in Additional file 1: Figure S1. All substrates were dissolved in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1% ascorbic acid (Wako) at a final concentration of 0.5 mM or 1 mM. DNA manipulation Genomic DNA from the bacterial strains was prepared following the method of Marmur [11].

To address this question, we evaluated the ability of worms to co

To address this question, we evaluated the ability of worms to control bacterial accumulation as a functional Selleckchem Tofacitinib marker of intestinal immunity. We considered the effect on longevity of the bacterial species used as nutrient source, as well as host age and host genotype. We studied genes directly related to intestinal immunity and those that are not known to be related. We found a strong inverse relationship between intestinal

bacterial accumulation and C. elegans longevity, operating across a range of host genotypes. These results suggest that intestinal (commensal) bacterial load is an age and host genotype-related phenotype that can be used to predict C. elegans lifespan. By analysis of mutants, Selleck PU-H71 we begin to establish a hierarchy of the host immune genes that have greatest effect on the intestinal milieu, and thus on longevity. Figure 1 Signaling pathways

important for C. elegans intestinal defenses against bacterial proliferation. A. DAF-2 insulin/IGF-I like signaling pathway. Activation of the DAF-2 receptor results in the phosphorylation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (AGE-1) which catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylinositol biphosphate (PiP2) into phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PiP3). The kinases PDK-1 and AKT-1/AKT-2 are activated by PiP3, which inhibits the transcription factor DAF-16. Relief of this inhibition leads to the expression of a set of stress response and antimicrobial genes. B. p38 MAPK pathway. PMK-1 is homologous to the mammalian p38 MAPK and acts downstream of NSY-1/MAKK kinase kinase and SEK-1/MAPK kinase. No interaction between TOL-1 and TIR-1 has been demonstrated. C. TGF-β pathway. The TGF-β homologue DBL-1 binds to the heterodimeric receptor SMA-6/DAF-4 and signals through the Smad proteins SMA-2, SMA-3 and SMA-4, which activate the transcription of genes involved

in regulation of body size and ARN-509 supplier innate immunity. The expression of lysozyme gene lys-1 is under the control of the p38 MAPK pathway and the DBL-1/TGF-β pathway. D. Mitochondrial enzymes. CLK-1 Amine dehydrogenase is an enzyme required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinoe CoQ9, an acceptor of electrons from both complexes I and II in C. elegans cells. Decreased complex I-dependent respiration of clk-1 mutants leads to decreased ROS production with lengthening lifespan and slowing development. TRX-1 is a mitochondrial oxidoreductase with important roles in lifespan regulation and oxidative stress response. Results Role of DAF-2 insulin-signaling pathway on C. elegans lifespan Under typical laboratory conditions at 25°C on NGM agar plates with a lawn of E. coli strain OP50, a culture of wild type (N2) C. elegans has a lifespan of ~ 2 weeks [20]. Lifespans are shorter when lawns are composed of bacteria that are more pathogenic for humans [21]; conversely, host mutations that increase resistance to bacterial infection prolong C. elegans lifespan [22].

Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1997,94(11):5667–5672 PubMedCrossRef 25 Ch

Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1997,94(11):5667–5672.PubMedCrossRef 25. Chen DL, Li MY, Luo

JY, Gu W: Direct interactions between HIF-1alpha and Mdm2 modulate p53 function. J Biol Chem 2003,278(16):13595–13598.PubMedCrossRef 26. Dai S, Huang ML, Hsu CY, Chao KS: Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor lalpha causes oxygen-independent cytotoxicity and induces p53 independent apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Int J Radiat Oncol Bio Phys 2003,55(4):1027–1036.CrossRef 27. Luo FM, Liu XJ, Yan NH, Li SQ, Cao GQ, Cheng QY, Xia QJ, Wang HJ: Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1alpha promotes hypoxia- induced A549 apoptosis via a mechanism that involves the glycolysis pathway. BMC Cancer 2006, 6:26–32.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions DZJ and WXJ designed the research. DZJ, GJ, MXB, YK and KHF performed the experiments I-BET-762 price throughout this research. LXX, JZZ and GHT contributed to the reagents, and OSI-027 mw participated in its design and coordination. DZJ and GJ analyzed the data; DZJ and MXB wrote the paper. Co-first authors: DZJ and GJ. All authors have read and approved Anlotinib the final manuscript.”
“Background Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor, and was the first ranked cause of cancer death in both males and females [1]. As one of the most prevalent malignant tumors in China, lung cancer has been highlighted with emphasis for cancer prevention

and treatment. Recently, the combinations of cytotoxic agents (such as gemcitabine, vinorelbine, and taxane) and platinum become new NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase standard for non-small-cell

lung cancer (NSCLC). But the resistance to these drugs causes unsatisfactory of overall survival rate. Therefore, it is very important to understand the molecular markers of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1) is a DNA damage repair gene that encodes the 5′ endonuclease of the NER complex, and is one of the key enzymes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which is essential for the removal of platinum-DNA adducts. Clinical studies have found that high ERCC1 expression is associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy and worse prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC [2]. The human BAG-1 gene is located in chromosome 9 and encodes three major BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1S (p36), BAG-1 M (p46), and BAG-1 L (p50), which are generated via alternate translation mechanisms from the same mRNA [3]. BAG-1 is a multifunctional binding protein involved in differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. BAG-1 has recently been found to bind and interact with the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, thereby inhibiting apoptosis [4]. Because of its affect on apoptosis, BAG-1 may play an important role in lung cancer. Further study showed that BAG-1 could be a target for lung cancer treatment of cisplatin [5]. The breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene1 (BRCA1) was the first breast cancer susceptibility gene identified in 1990 and was primary cloned in 1994.

Within part I, cohorts A, B, and C started at progressively highe

Within part I, cohorts A, B, and C started at progressively higher doses (100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg), all rising to 600 mg bid, in order to explore the optimal titration schedule; cohort D evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) see more pharmacokinetics at the

lower end of the dosing range (at 100 and 300 mg bid). The treatment duration in part I was between 10 and 16 days, depending on the titration schedule. Part II was a 30-patient, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled design, which evaluated two dose levels of Org 26576 for 28 days (10 subjects assigned to 100 mg bid, 10 subjects assigned to 400 mg bid, and 10 subjects assigned to placebo), with objectives to evaluate tolerability, pharmacokinetics,

and Wnt inhibitor pharmacodynamics over an extended treatment period. The doses in part II were selected on the basis of the tolerability results from part I. All selected patients were male or female, aged 18–65 years, and diagnosed with MDD according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Current depressive episodes were mild to severe without psychotic features, and no more than 2 years in duration, with a total score of at least GDC-0973 chemical structure 9 but not more than 20 on the Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology – Clinician Rating (QIDS-C).[31] Patients who had received antidepressant treatment with an adequate dose and duration in the current episode were excluded. Eligible patients were otherwise generally healthy and medically stable; were taking no concurrent psychotropic medications; and had no history of bipolar disorder, psychosis, filipin post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or eating disorder. Patients with a 6-month history of substance

dependence (not including nicotine), current substance abuse, or a positive screening or admission urine drug/alcohol test were excluded. Subjects in both trials were admitted to the unit 1–2 days before the first dosing and confined for the full term of the dosing period. Diet and physical activity were controlled, and subjects were closely monitored for safety and tolerability. Safety evaluations included regular AE assessments, vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs), clinical laboratory assessments, and safety electroencephalograms (EEGs) conducted in a resting state with eyes open and closed, with photic stimulation, and with 3 minutes of hyperventilation. In addition, the patient trial included frequent suicidality assessment using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS).[32] In study 1, the MTD was not specifically defined a priori; however, safety and tolerability were closely monitored by the study investigators and the sponsor in a blinded fashion, and dosing progression was largely dependent on absence of medication discontinuations due to AEs.

Figure 4 UV–vis absorption spectra of different Au and Au/Pd nano

Figure 4 UV–vis absorption spectra of different Au and Au/Pd nanoparticles. Electrochemical properties of the Au/Pd and Pd black catalysts were evaluated

in selleck chemicals llc Figure 5. In the CV see more curves shown in Figure 5a, the current density (J) has been normalized to the electrochemical surface area (ECSA). ECSA (m2 gPd -1) was calculated by integrating the hydrogen adsorption peak from the CV curves after correcting the double-layer charges [24]. In the anodic scan direction, the Au50Pd NPs show slightly higher Pd oxidation peak current than those of other catalysts even though the onset of Pd oxidation is postponed. Consequently, reduction of the PdO or PdOH formed during the anodic scan occurs at a slightly higher potential during the subsequent cathodic

scan. Figure 5 Electrochemical properties of the Au/Pd and Pd black catalysts. (a) CV curves and (b) CO-stripping CV curves of the Au/Pd and Pd black nanoparticles in 0.1 M HClO4 solution from 0.075 to 1.2 V. The currents are normalized to the ECSA of Pd. The above-observed results might be due to the electronic interaction between check details the Pd and Au and the geometric effect (or so-called ensemble effect [36]). For many surface reactions, a certain number of active sites are required. Ensemble of active sites on the catalyst surface impacts reaction selectivity and activity. The XPS results have already demonstrated that electronic interaction between the Pd and Au may not be significant to yield such different adsorption behavior of oxygen-containing

species on the Au/Pd NPs. Therefore, we simply attribute the Idoxuridine effect of different Au cores in the Au/Pd NPs to the geometric contribution. This geometric effect is further confirmed and demonstrated by the CO-stripping results in Figure 5b. The CO coverages (Au25Pd = 0.88; Au50Pd = 0.94; Au100Pd = 0.9; Pd black = 0.78) calculated according to reference [37] are slightly different for different samples but close to unity. The Au25Pd displays the lowest CO oxidation potential at 0.87 V compared to the Pd black (0.92 V), Au50Pd (0.90 V), and Au100Pd (0.91 V). The availability of higher coordinated Pd sites (the most stable configuration) might be slightly reduced for smaller particle size due to the ensemble effect. Therefore, the adsorption strength of CO may be reduced as manifested by a negatively shifted peak potential for the Au25Pd. The facile oxidation of CO on the core-shell NPs at lower potential will translate to an enhanced FAO kinetic since the FAO oxidation pathway involving CO or CO-like species results in lower activities of catalysts [38, 39]. Figure 3a shows that the Au25Pd demonstrates the highest area-specific current density (5.5 mA cm-2) in the forward scan direction, while the Pd black only shows a peak current of 3.5 mA cm-2. Besides, the specific activity of Au25Pd at 0.3 V (the normal working potential in a DFAFC) is slightly higher (0.93 mA cm-2) than that of the Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2).

All authors read and approved the final manuscript “

All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Introduction Students often criticize lectures for limited opportunities for active involvement, interaction with the instructor, task-centered problem-solving

opportunities, variation of activities and feedback on efforts [1, 2]. The interactive approach for teaching however, involves an increased interchange between lecturer, students and the lecture content; promoting active involvement of students [3]. They are among innovative this website approaches for teaching and learning in medicine underpinned by adult learning principles [4] and are increasingly considered best educational practice that medical schools internationally are adopting as they revitalize their curriculum and shift to a learner-centered

focus. While this click here is important, it is equally imperative to seek students’ input regarding quality of teaching and learning approaches experienced. The most often used evaluation tool is student ratings on different dimensions of the instructional process and presentation style [5]. We aimed to evaluate an interactive problem-solving approach for teaching traumatology from perspectives of students and consider its implications on Faculty development. Subjects and methods Educational material A two hour problem-solving, interactive tutorial on traumatology was structured to cover main topics in trauma management. The tutorial was based on real cases that demonstrated core learning objectives. The first author (FAZ) was personally involved in the management of these cases. The tutorial was built up to be standardized in a semi-controlled situation. All tutorials were done by the same tutor (FAZ) who had developed the educational material, covering the same cases, in the same format, sequence, and structure, and having specific

objectives (Table 1). Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 demonstrate some of these cases. Slide projectors were used without animation. The tutorial was structured to show a visual aid (slide), ask the question, define the problem, let students enquire and debate; even sometime in small groups, before a solution is reached. Slides were prepared according to scientific advised standards [6, 7]. Table 1 Structure of and objectives of the interactive problem-solving trauma tutorial Case Clinical hsitory Questions asked Objectives of the case 1 A 58-years old male fell on his left heel from 15 meters high. What are the possible injuries of this patient? Understand the biomechanics of blunt trauma; anticipate injuries depending on mechanism including pelvis, spine and abdominal organs. 2 A 20-years old male shot by a high energy bullet at right side of chest with an exist in the left loin (Fig 1). What are the possible injuries of this RAD001 mw patient and how would you manage him? Understand the biomechanics of ballistic injuries, draw the track of the bullet, appreciate the devastating severity of injury, and understand the need to stop bleeding and contamination.