Nevertheless, for this type of decompression incidents, called articular bends, no model proved to fit the empirical results for a broad range of find more exposures and decompression procedures. We present here an original biophysical decompression model for describing the occurrence of articular bends. A target joint is broken down into two parts that exchange inert gases with the blood by perfusion and with each other by diffusion over distances of a few millimetres. This diffusion pathway allows the slow amplification of microbubbles
growing during and after decompression, consistent with the possible delayed occurrence of bends. The diffusion coefficients introduced into this model are larger than those introduced into most modern decompression models. Their value remains physical (#10(-9) m(2)/s). Inert gas exchanges and the formation, amplification and resorption of microbubbles during and after decompression were simulated. We used a critical gas volume criterion https://www.selleckchem.com/products/prt062607-p505-15-hcl.html for predicting the occurrence of bends. A risk database extracted from COMEX experience and other published studies were used for the correlation of model parameters not known a priori. We considered a large range of exposure, and the commonly used inert gases nitrogen and helium. This correlation phase identified the
worst biophysical conformations most likely to lead to the formation, in tissues such as tendons, of a large number of microbubbles recruited from pre-existing gas nuclei during decompression. The risk of bends occurrence was found to be linked to the total separated gas volume generated during and after decompression. A clamping phenomenon occurs soon after the start of decompression, greatly slowing the gas exchanges controlled especially by the oxygen window. This model, which reproduces many empirical findings, may be considered both descriptive and predictive. (C) 2011 Elsevier
Ltd. All rights Selleckchem Cyclosporin A reserved.”
“Hypertension now affects about 600 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of death in the Western world. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), provides a useful model to investigate hypertensive heart failure (HF). The SHR model replicates the clinical progression of hypertension in humans, wherein early development of hypertension is followed by a long stable period of compensated cardiac hypertrophy that slowly progresses to HF. Although the hypertensive failing heart generally shows increased substrate preference towards glucose and impaired mitochondrial function, the cause-and-effect relationship between these characteristics is incompletely understood. To explore these pathogenic processes, we compared cardiac mitochondrial proteomes of 20-month-old SHR and Wistar-Kyoto controls by iTRAQ (TM)-labelling combined with multidimensional LC/MS/MS. Of 137 high-scoring proteins identified, 79 differed between groups.