(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:723-730)”
An earlier meta-analysis Birinapant of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of measurement and an unusually low placebo effect. The authors evaluated generalizability from children of adults. Results: The LDX effect sizes for children were significantly larger than the pooled stimulant effect sizes from studies using the same outcome measures. However, although no other individual stimulant study had an effect size greater than LDX, there was overlap between the 95% confidence intervals for some of these studies and the LDX study. The high
LDX effect sizes were not due measurement or placebo effect artifacts. LDX effect sizes for adults were not larger than the stimulant effect sizes from other studies. Conclusion: The high LDX effect size for children VX-770 molecular weight could not attributed to measurement artifacts. The superiority of LDX in the pediatric clinical trial reflected the greater efficacy of amphetamine products, compared with methylphenidate products but required replication in children because (a) the results were based on only one trial of LDX in children, and
(b) the finding did not generalize to adults. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; 16(2) 128-137)”
“Exposure to dogs in early infancy has been shown to reduce the risk of childhood allergic disease development, and dog ownership is associated with a distinct house dust microbial exposure. Here, we demonstrate, using murine models, that exposure of mice to dog-associated house dust protects against ovalbumin or cockroach allergen-mediated airway pathology. Protected animals exhibited significant reduction in the total number of airway T cells, down-regulation of Th2-related airway responses, as well as mucin secretion. Following dog-associated dust exposure, the cecal microbiome of protected animals was extensively restructured with significant enrichment of, amongst others, Lactobacillus johnsonii. Supplementation JNK inhibitor of wild-type animals with L. johnsonii protected them against both airway allergen challenge or infection with respiratory syncytial virus. L. johnsonii-mediated protection was associated with significant reductions in the total number and proportion of activated CD11c(+)/CD11b(+) and CD11c(+)/CD8(+) cells, as well as significantly reduced airway Th2 cytokine expression. Our results reveal that exposure to dog-associated household dust results in protection against airway allergen challenge and a distinct gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Moreover, the study identifies L.