“The authors regret that there is an error in the ‘Abstrac

“The authors regret that there is an error in the ‘Abstract’ of this published article. The corrected abstract is as follows: We know that from mid-childhood onwards

most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired learn more later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposure phase. At test adults read the novel words in semantically neutral sentences. Participants’ eye movements were monitored throughout exposure and test. Adults also completed a surprise memory test in which they had to match each novel word with its definition. Results showed a decrease in reading times for all novel words over exposure, and significantly shorter total reading times at test for early than late novel words. Early-presented novel words were also remembered better in the offline test. Our results show that order of presentation influences processing time early in the course of acquiring a new word, consistent with partial click here and incremental growth

in knowledge occurring as a function of an individual’s experience with each word. “
“Eutrophication drives numerous lakes worldwide to a deteriorated state where phytoplankton dominate over macrophytes (Smith et al., 1999). As a result, species composition changes (Jeppesen et al., 2000 and Smith et al., 1999), toxic algal blooms proliferate (Paerl et al., 2011a) and drinking Dimethyl sulfoxide water supplies dwindle (Falconer and Humpage, 2005 and Smith et al., 1999). The transition to a phytoplankton dominated state is often non-linear and in many cases catastrophic (Scheffer et al., 2000). In case of a catastrophic transition, a change from the macrophyte dominating

state to the alternative phytoplankton state will be rapid and recovery may show hysteresis (alternative stable states) when positive feedbacks between macrophytes and phytoplankton are strong (Scheffer et al., 1993). Small lakes are more likely to exhibit a macrophyte-rich state than large lakes (Van Geest et al., 2003) primarily because small lakes are less prone to destructive wind forces (Janse et al., 2008) and fish are less abundant (Scheffer and Van Nes, 2007). Examples of small lakes that shifted between the macrophyte and phytoplankton dominated state are the gravel pit lakes in England (< 1 km2, < 2 m depth) (Scheffer et al., 1993 and Wright and Phillips, 1992) and Lake Veluwe in the Netherlands (30 km2, 1.5 m depth) (Meijer, 2000). But there are also larger lakes with macrophytes, and where alternative stable states are presumed.

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