tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients had been increasin

tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients had been increasing at an alarming rate. 1 One of the intrinsic factors contributing to INH resistant in M. tuberculosis is the underlying architecture of the bacterial cell envelope. 2 and 3 The cell wall of M. tuberculosis is double-layered, comprising of an inner electron-dense layer of peptidoglycan and an outer electron-transparent Selleckchem SAR405838 layer containing mycolyl arabinogalactan complex and peptidoglycan. 4 In brief, the arabinogalactan chains covalently bond to cross-linked peptidoglycan via phosphoryl-N-acetylglucosaminosyl-rhamnosyl

linkage units and then the arabinogalactan in turn is esterified to α-alkyl, β-hydroxy mycolic acids. 5 and 6 Studies reported that the outer layer functions as

an exclusion barrier towards hydrophilic drugs, especially INH. 2 and 3 Thus, the cell wall structure and INH penetration through the lipid domain provide opportunities for rational strategies for development of more effective and less toxic new anti-TB drugs which focused on drug lipophilicity. Previous studies have shown that chemical modifications of INH by increasing its lipophilic property resulted in enhanced activity of INH against M. tuberculosis. NLG919 in vitro 2 and 7 Encouraged by these studies, three lipophilic INH derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their in vitro anti-TB activities. We speculated that these new INH derivatives should easily penetrate the bacterial cell envelope to exert a better inhibitory activity on the growth of the bacteria. This study was also carried out to study the interactions between these INH derivatives with four most common first-line anti-TB drugs: INH, streptomycin (STR),

rifampicin (RIF), and ethambutol (EMB). It is hoped that the findings of this study will point to a promising lead compound for future development of alternative therapeutic for INH resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The INH-C16, INH-C17 and INH-C18 were synthesized following the procedure by Besra et al.8 Dry dichloromethane and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (1.2 eq.) were added to hexadecanoyl chloride, heptadecanoyl chloride and octadecanoyl chloride for synthesis of INH-C16, INH-C17 and INH-C18 respectively, followed by INH (1.1 eq.). Each reaction mixture was stirred the at ambient temperature overnight. It was then washed with 2% diluted hydrochloric acid and water. The organic layer obtained was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulphate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to afford the crude product, which was purified by column chromatography. Product confirmation was achieved by standard procedures involving IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Fig. 1 displays the chemical structures of INH-C16, INH-C17 and INH-C18 as compared to INH. INH, STR, RIF, and EMB were obtained commercially from Sigma–Aldrich Chemical Company, United Kingdom. Stock solutions of INH, STR, and EMB were prepared by dissolving in distilled water to obtain a concentration of 1 mg/mL, 3.

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