While G1P [8], G2P [4] and G9P [8] accounted for 64 4% of strains

While G1P [8], G2P [4] and G9P [8] accounted for 64.4% of strains, a number of unusual strains including uncommon G and P combinations such as G1P [4], G2P [8] and bovine-human reassortant strains PS-341 mouse such as G10P [11] were also identified. G3 and G4 rotaviruses were not seen in this population. The common genotypes caused more severe disease than rare or reassortant strains. Higher disease severity has been shown to correspond with greater virus replication by stool

viral load [23]. It would be interesting to quantify the rotavirus shed in stools of children infected with these genotypes and determine if viral load is greater in common genotypes, indicating a replicative advantage possibly resulting in more severe disease. However, it is important to note that

the hospital based study design is biased towards severe cases and a better assessment of severity and genotype can be obtained through a combination of hospital and community based studies. In summary, the study provides an in-depth clinical description of rotavirus Pomalidomide in vitro gastroenteritis and underscores the need for a uniform measure of severity assessment and clinical data collection in vaccine studies. This work was supported by grants from the Indian Council of Medical Research and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. Conflict of interest: None to declare “
“Diarrhoea remains an important cause of death in children under five years of age worldwide and accounted for an estimated 1.3 million deaths in 2008. In the Africa region, 19% of the 4.2 million annual deaths were caused by diarrhoea. In addition, 90% of deaths due to AIDS in children occurred in this region [1]. Ribonucleotide reductase Diarrhoeal disease has been identified as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in

HIV-infected children. Incidence rates for acute diarrhoea, recurrent diarrhoea and persistent diarrhoea were shown to be higher in HIV-infected infants compared to HIV-uninfected infants [2]. In South Africa, HIV-infected children admitted with diarrhoea were more likely to have prolonged diarrhoea, malnutrition, require a longer hospital stay and have a co-diagnosis of pneumonia. They also had a higher frequency of recurrent diarrhoea and recurrent hospital admissions [3], [4] and [5]. Data on the burden of rotavirus disease in HIV-infected children are limited. Globally, rotavirus is the main cause of acute gastroenteritis and accounted for 527,000 under-five childhood deaths in 2004. Rotavirus detection rates ranged from 16 to 66% with a mean detection rate in the Africa regions of 30% [6]. A review of South African studies shows that rotavirus contributes significantly to childhood diarrhoea in South Africa, with a median detection rate of 24% among inpatients [7]. Surveillance data from Gauteng, South Africa shows 23% of children hospitalised with diarrhoea were rotavirus positive [8].

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