This article will
deal with one specific aspect, and that is compensation to an unrelated live donor. Of course, this happens in a “Cobimetinib concentration non-criminal” setting and with consent, but there is always a danger of wrong-doing in such cases. HISTORY OF ISLAMIC DISCOURSE Scholars mention that the first body parts to be transplanted were skin, bone, teeth, blood, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cornea. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1954, the first liver transplant in 1960, and the first heart transplant in 1967. On December 17, 1986, a landmark medical advance was achieved in England with the first combined heart, lung, and kidney transplant. Since the 1950s, Muslim scholars and jurists have been preoccupied with the subject of transplantation. The increasing number of transplants in the late Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1970s and 1980s resulted in an increasing number of Muslim scholars’ responsa on the ethical aspects of the issue. Because organ transplants were not mentioned in the Quran and did not exist during the time of the Prophet, Muslim scholars were forced
to draw from general norms and rules in Islam. It is stated that the approach was positive overall, but there were some reservations.7 Farhat Moazam (female Muslim researcher of Pakistani origin) reports that there is on-going extensive discourse among Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Muslim scholars and jurists on how to deal with novel moral dilemmas due to rapid advances Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in medical science and biotechnology since the early 1980s. Many of these publications are available (in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and English) with details of the discussions and opinions on the permissibility or not within shari’a of medical interventions that include tissue and organ transplantation. These opinions may not always be uniform or unanimous, but all
are grounded in the four classical usul al-fiqh (roots of jurisprudence or legal methodology), which are Quran, Sunna (sayings, deeds, and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad), Qiyas (the analogy), and Ijma’ (the consensus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the scholars). Maslaha (public benefit) and darura (necessity) principles were adopted as well, such as “necessity makes lawful that which is prohibited”, “hardship calls for relief, and “where it is inevitable, the lesser of the two harms should be done”. Such concepts, we should note, not are heavily used in the wasatiyya discourse. Ulama and fuqaha (Muslim clerics and jurists) from most major Islamic centers in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, and other Muslim countries have generally given fatawa (singular: fatwa, a response of an authoritative Islamic figure – alim or faqih) in favor of both live and cadaver renal donations and transplantation, as human life is considered sacred. Many have based their opinions on a Quranic verse (al-Ma’idah, 5:32), stating that saving one life is equivalent to having saved all humanity.