W Costerton (Costerton et al , 1981) Similarly, Niels Høiby had

W. Costerton (Costerton et al., 1981). Similarly, Niels Høiby had observed that the aggregation of P. aeruginosa in the sputum of chronically infected CF patients was relevant to CF-associated lung infection compared with single-celled

bacteria (Høiby, 1977). In 1984, Costerton formally outlined the hypothesis that organisms like P. aeruginosa could behave similarly in human infections to the way they behaved in the environment. He further suggested that ‘glycocalyx-enclosed biofilms of P. aeruginosa BMS-777607 clinical trial or other bacteria have been identified in experimental or clinical infections arising from contaminated prostheses and in chronic refractory infections, such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and P. aeruginosa pneumonia associated with cystic fibrosis.’ (Costerton, 1984; Høiby et al., 1986). Clinicians may be more familiar with foreign body (implant) infections because of microbial attachment to a nonliving surface distinguished from biofilms associated with host tissues, or ‘native tissue infections’ (Lynch

& Robertson, 2008). These latter infections include Paclitaxel in vitro chronic lung infections of CF patients, chronic otitis media (OM), native valve (infectious) endocarditis (IE), and chronic wounds (Table 1). More broadly, we propose that BAI are ‘infections due to aggregated, pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms encased in an exopolysaccharide matrix and recalcitrant to host defense mechanisms and antimicrobial treatment.’ The pathogenesis of many biofilm infections these also includes normal microbial flora of mucosal membranes or the skin, which gain access to an organ via foreign bodies and clinicians should suspect biofilm infections in such situations (Table 2).

BAI present significant challenges to current clinical practice guidelines because of the inherent difficulty in determining whether the infection is biofilm-related or is due to an acute infection with planktonic microorganisms. Therefore, functional, clinically relevant criteria would help to: (1) better distinguish BAI from acute planktonic infections, (2) obtain appropriate clinical samples, and (3) provide focus for the development of routine clinical tests. Criteria for biofilm infections have been previously proposed and modified, based on the initial Parsek–Singh criteria (Parsek & Singh, 2003; Hall-Stoodley & Stoodley, 2009) (Table 3). These criteria exemplify several characteristic features of BAI. The first two criteria include fundamental definitions of biofilms discussed earlier, such as association with a surface and aggregation. Whenever possible, sampling surfaces suspected of harboring biofilm microorganisms is preferred, even if fluid samples are also available. This is problematic, however, as it may involve invasive procedures such as biopsy, needle aspiration, or removal of an implant.

apiospermum, we studied the morphological transformation induced

apiospermum, we studied the morphological transformation induced by the incubation of conidia in Sabouraud-dextrose medium at 37 °C. After 6 h, some conidia presented a small projection resembling a germ-tube. A significant increase, around sixfold, in the germ-tube length was found after 12 h, and hyphae were exclusively observed after 24 h. Three distinct metallopeptidase inhibitors were able to arrest the transformation of conidia into hyphae in different ways; for instance, 1,10-phenanthroline (PHEN) completely blocked this process at 10 μmol l−1, while ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol-bis

(β-aminoethyl ether; EGTA) only partially inhibited the differentiation at up to 10 mmol l−1. EGTA did not Selleckchem Trametinib promote any significant reduction in the conidial growth, while PHEN and HTS assay EDTA, both at 10 mmol l−1, inhibited the proliferation around 100% and 65%, respectively. The secretion of polypeptides into the extracellular environment and the metallopeptidase activity secreted by mycelia were completely inhibited by PHEN. These findings suggest that metallo-type enzymes could be potential targets for future therapeutic interventions against S. apiospermum. “
“Rhino-orbital zygomycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection generally occurring in patients with an

underlying disorder, such as diabetes mellitus with ketoacidosis or with immunocompromising factors, although it may rarely appear in healthy individuals. The study has been undertaken to discuss the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnostic work up and management of this rapidly progressive disease. Four male patients having uncontrolled diabetes and presenting with signs and symptoms of rhino-orbital zygomycosis were studied Avelestat (AZD9668) to illustrate the serious nature of the disease. All the four patients had rapidly deteriorating vision loss either unilateral or bilateral along with other nasal and orbital signs and symptoms. All the patients were put on liposomal amphotericin B and underwent orbital exenteration and pansinusectomy. One patient died, while the other three were successfully treated. Early

diagnosis is critical in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. There is need for a high index of clinical suspicion in immunocompromised patients. Timely medical-surgical treatment proves extremely important for prognosis. “
“Detection of Trichophyton rubrum in superficial skin infections by conventional methods is time consuming and not always successful. However, with modern molecular methods, an alternative is in sight. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of T. rubrum by conventional methods and by a direct specific PCR assay under routine conditions. Skin scrapings (n = 464) and nail samples (n = 230) collected from suspected tinea lesions were equally divided for KOH-mounts, cultures and PCR-analysis.

The defects were located at the ankle (three cases), foot (two ca

The defects were located at the ankle (three cases), foot (two cases), and heel (six cases).

Particular attention was paid to precise patient selection and surgical refinements. Patient selection was based on the lower limb vascular status by palpable distal pedal pulses and ankle brachial index ranging from 0.9 to 1.2. Surgical techniques were refined as precisely locating the perforators of peroneal artery, placing the skin paddle in upper third of leg for a distal region coverage, designing a 7-cm-wide adipofascial pedicle with a 2 cm skin paddle on it, preserving the mesentery structure of sural nerve and concomitant artery with or without including gastrocnemius muscles cuff, no tunneling when inset this flap and supercharging selleck chemicals with lesser saphenous vein whenever needed. All the flaps survived completely. Only Selleck CP 868596 one patient required immediate anastomosis of lesser saphenous

vein to local vein around defect in order to relieve the venous congestion during operation. Patients felt diminished but adequate recovery of sense of touch and temperature at the flap. Following the precise patient selection and surgical refinements, the modified reverse sural flap seemed to be a reliable and effective local flap for reconstruction of the soft tissue defects on ankle and foot. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 33:342–349, 2013. “
“Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation

with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1a) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1c). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection Tau-protein kinase of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups.

Nguyen et al reported the capacity of healthy donors’ sera to bi

Nguyen et al. reported the capacity of healthy donors’ sera to bind and kill human

leukemic cells and activated T cells that were exogenously fed with Neu5Gc, but in these studies the detected cell death was mediated only by a complement-mediated mechanism [12]. The antibodies that recognized NeuGcGM3-expressing cells were of the IgM isotype. The IgM fraction isolated from one of the healthy donor’s sera retained the capacity to induce complement-independent death of the tumor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies that are able to induce the oncotic cell death of Palbociclib nmr antigen-expressing tumor cells without the necessity of any other immune component. These results suggest the existence of antibodies with antitumor potential, which could contribute to tumor immune surveillance. It is interesting to observe that the levels of anti-NeuGcGM3 selleck screening library antibodies decreased as the age of the donors increased. Not only is the level of anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies lower

in elderly donors, but also the percentage of responding donors decreases with age. An age-associated decrease in antibody levels against foreign antigens was first reported more than 70 years ago [35], supporting the idea of an immune deficiency state in the elderly. However, this seems to be a phenomenon dependent on the nature of the antigen and the cells involved in the different responses, since other studies have shown that the concentration of serum antibodies against a variety of self-antigens such as thyroglobulin, DNA, and IgG, increases with age [36]. In fact our results demonstrate that the total amount of IgG and IgM

did not decrease with age, suggesting that it is not the amount of antibodies but the Rutecarpine antibody repertoire that changes with age. One possible explanation for the decrease in antibody levels with increasing age involves an impaired capacity of T cells to facilitate the maturation of B cells in the periphery and the generation of a diverse B-cell repertoire from precursors within the bone marrow [37]. According to this theory, the response against T-independent antigens should not be affected by age [38]. However, the antibody response against not only NeuGcGM3 but also against other tumor related gangliosides (T-independent antigens), significantly decrease with increasing donor age [19]. Another possibility could be a reduction in the B-cell population responsible for the production of naturally occurring antibodies. Recently, Griffin et al. described a human B-cell population equivalent to mouse B1 cells [39], the main source of murine natural antibodies [40]. These researchers showed that human B1 cells decline with age.

Some environmental stress conditions result in significant increa

Some environmental stress conditions result in significant increases in the level of excision of VPI-2 [21]. Possibly, environmental signals can trigger induction of excision and circularization of the VPI-2 region encoding T3SS, after which lysis of V. cholerae cells occurs. As a result, a certain amount of circular

intermediates would be released. The natural SCH727965 price competence observed in V. cholerae is induced in response to the presence of chitin, a polymer of β-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine [16]. Because chitin is abundant in the aquatic environment, V. cholerae can become competent in natural environments. In such situations, there is a strong possibility of horizontal transfer of T3SS-related genes among V. cholerae strains, through either circular intermediates or DNA linear fragments. In this study, we showed that the T3SS gene region of 14033VC1758::cat DNA can transform recipient V. cholerae strains with their expression under experimental competence conditions. This provides evidence for the evolutionary mechanism underlying the development of pathogenic V. cholerae in natural reservoirs. This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-aid from the Ministry of

Health, Labour, and Welfare (H20-Shinko-Ippan-013, and H20-Shinko-Ippan-015). The International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, acknowledges its major donor countries and agencies for their continued financial support in its activities. All authors declare no conflict of interest. Additional supporting information Vildagliptin may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher’s web site: “
“Oral intake of specific Selleck Z-VAD-FMK probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 109 CFU day−1 of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population.

massiliense numbering) The other group (19 strains) had one diff

massiliense numbering). The other group (19 strains) had one different mTOR inhibitor nucleotide at the 190th base (A190G, 466th nucleotide on M. abscessus numbering) from the type strain. Unlike the erm(41) of M. massiliense, those of M. abscessus and M. bolletii were not clearly differentiated by sequence analysis. They showed 18 polymorphic nucleotides and were separated into 12 clusters on the phylogenetic tree (data not shown). The Erm(41) of M. massiliense could

be described as three characteristic regions, the N-end (21 amino acids), the central mutated area (30 amino acids), and the C-end (30 amino acids). Although the Erm(41) produced by M. massiliense was found to be smaller than the Erm produced by other mycobacteria, both the N- and C-terminal ends of M. massiliense corresponded almost exactly to the ends of Erm(41) produced by M. abscessus and M. bolletii. Indeed, only three amino acids differed between the ends of M. massiliense and those of M. abscessus and M. bolletii Cobimetinib chemical structure (Q14/P14 and A16/T16 in the N-end, and T64/A156 in the C-end). However, M. massiliense has 30 amino acids that differ from the other Erm(41) due to the frame-shift mutation in the central mutated region. All C-terminal regions of the Erm(41) in the three species were

truncated in a similar fashion to that of M. tuberculosis Erm(37). The MIC of 35 M. massiliense strains were less than 2 μg/ml, whereas those of five strains were very high (>256 μg/ml). However, the MIC of 37 M. abscessus strains very ranged from 0.06 to 64 μg/ml, and two strains showed very high MIC (>256 μg/ml). These seven highly resistant strains contained a point mutation at the adenine at position 2058 (A2058) or A2059 in the peptidyltransferase region of the 23S rRNA gene. Two M. bolletii isolates showed distinct MIC (0.25 and 16 μg/ml). They did not harbor a point mutation at A2058 or A2059 in 23S rRNA gene, and the former isolate (0.25 μg/ml) had the T28C transition of erm(41). Also, the MIC of one M. chelonae isolate was low,

1 μg/ml (Table 1). In addition, although the end-point of growth inhibition was clear-cut in all of the M. massiliense strains, that of M. abscessus and M. bolletii strains, except for six strains having T28C transition, showed trailing, and the MIC of M. abscessus and M. bolletii increased with prolonged incubation, as reported previously (24). Difference in the clarithromycin susceptibility of M. massiliense and M. abscessus was clearly observed in the present study carried out with extended numbers of clinical isolates. Specifically, M. massiliense isolates were found to be either markedly susceptible (87.5%; MIC, ≤2 μg/ml) or highly resistant (12.5%; MIC, >256 μg/ml), whereas M. abscessus isolates were found to be either susceptible (48.7%; MIC, ≤2 μg/ml), intermediate (10.3%; MIC, 4 μg/ml), or resistant (41.

01; group P vs MR, P < 0 05) Nephrin, podocin and podocalyxin st

01; group P vs MR, P < 0.05). Nephrin, podocin and podocalyxin staining was preserved in the glomeruli of groups MR and AR compared with group P. Conclusion:  The MR and AR blockers decreased proteinuria in the acute model of nephrotic syndrome with preserved expression of glomerular podocyte protein independently of blood pressure. "
“Aim:  Adverse cardiovascular events resulting from accelerated atherosclerosis are the leading cause of mortality in uraemic

patients on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD). Chronic inflammation due to antigen-specific selleck kinase inhibitor responses is an important factor in the acceleration of atherosclerosis. The balance between CD4+ CD25+ forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper (Th)17 cells has been reported to play an important role in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present

study was to assess the Treg/Th17 pattern in uraemic patients on MHD and to explore the significance of Treg/Th17 imbalance in the development and outcome of acute cardiovascular events. Methods:  A total of 42 uraemic patients on MHD were evaluated. Of the 42, 22 patients with a history of acute cardiovascular events served as the MHD1 group and 20 patients without acute cardiovascular events served as the MHD2 group. Thirty patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) without acute cardiovascular events just before haemodialysis selleck screening library therapy served as the CKD control group and 30 healthy volunteers as the normal control group. The Treg and Th17 frequencies were measured by flow cytometry. The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and Foxp3 expressions Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serum cytokines and C-reactive protein were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoturbidimetry. Results:  Patients with uraemia exhibited an obvious imbalance

of Treg/Th17 function when compared to the normal control group, displaying increased peripheral Th17 frequency, Th17-related cytokines (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6 and IL-23) and RORγt mRNA levels. These patients also displayed decreased Treg frequency, Treg-related cytokines (IL-10, transforming growth factor-β1) and Foxp3 mRNA levels. This imbalance was more pronounced in the MHD2 group, while there was no significant difference between the MHD1 and CKD control group (P < 0.01 between normal control and uraemic patients; P > 0.05 between CKD control and MHD1; and P < 0.05 between MHD1 and MHD2). It was also observed that the imbalance of Treg/Th17 was not only consistent with the cardiovascular disease but also correlated with a microinflammatory state. Conclusion:  The Treg/Th17 balance was disturbed by uraemia, especially in patients with adverse cardiovascular events.

33,34 We found that T-cell activation caused a 2·5-fold induction

33,34 We found that T-cell activation caused a 2·5-fold induction of SKP2 mRNA and a 6-fold induction of CKS1B, and the same occurred in cells exposed to nIL-2, BMS-345541

or PS-1145. Therefore, we conclude that, at the transcriptional level, SKP2 and CKS1B are not influenced by the functional status of IKK or IL-2 signalling. However, at the protein level, SKP2 and CKS1B expression was unaffected by nIL-2, but suppressed by BMS-345541 and PS-1145. Thus, we further conclude R788 clinical trial that, in stimulated human naïve CD4+ T cells, IKK activation is crucial for the stability of the F-box protein SKP2 and its co-factor CKS1B. As phosphorylation of SKP2 on serine 64/72 is required for its stabilization PD0325901 mw and protection from anaphase-promoting complex (APC)Cdh1-mediated degradation,43,44 we propose that IKK activation assists, or is required for, this stabilizing mechanism in human T cells. Inhibition by BMS-345541 or PS-1145 appears to be specific, because expression of β-actin, β-tubulin, lamin-B1, GAPDH and proteasome subunit α5 was similar in costimulated T cells with and without pretreatment, which excludes a general block in protein expression by either drug. This was supported by the comparable levels of induction seen for the NFAT-regulated EGR-2 transcription factor.

While PS-1145 is essentially an IKKβ inhibitor with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0·15 μm, BMS-345541 can inhibit IKKβ and IKKα, although with different IC50s: 0·3 μm for IKKβ and 4 μm for IKKα.45 Therefore, the observations of the present study appear to result mainly from the inhibition of IKKβ, although the possibility of a contribution from IKKα inhibition cannot be formally excluded. BMS-345541 and PS-1145 are structurally unrelated, and share the unique, non-specific target, ERK-8 protein kinase.46 As this

is virtually absent in circulating leucocytes47 our results are presumably not caused by the inhibition of kinases other than IKK. Both the pharmacological inhibition of IKK48 and the genetic repression of NF-κB proteins through the expression of a dominant negative form of I-κBα49 are associated with markedly impaired proliferative Atazanavir responses of T cells, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. By demonstrating the ability of IKK-mediated signals to regulate transcription of cyclin D3, CDK2 and cyclin E, and protein stability of SKP2 and its co-factor CKS1B through IL-2-independent mechanisms, this study provides new information about the function of IKK in T-cell proliferation. However, with the exception of cyclin D3, no NF-κB binding sites have been reported in the promoters of the CDK2 or cyclin E genes. Therefore, no obvious explanation exists for the molecular mechanisms that link the pharmacological inhibition of IKK with the inhibition of CDK2 and cyclin E up-regulation in human T cells.

Mice immunized with AMH subunit vaccine generated high HspX-speci

Mice immunized with AMH subunit vaccine generated high HspX-specific IgG2a and IgG1 as well as high IFN-γ

production with the stimulation of Ag85B and HspX. The antibodies target the extracellular mycobacteria through binding to live M. tuberculosis, which can alter the specific uptake pathway used for phagocytosis [22]. High IgG2a/IgG1 reflects Th1-skewing pathway that produces IFN-γ to promote intracellular microbicidal activities by activating INK 128 supplier macrophages and cytotoxic T cells [17]. AMM/AMH/AMM + AMH vaccine was designed to boost BCG-primed immunity to evaluate the capability of generating protective immunity. The results showed that only AMM + AMH boosting resulted in a significant decrease in CFUs in lung tissues compared with the BCG group. Although AMM vaccine was found to be a promising candidate, it could not reduce markedly the bacterial load compared with BCG in BCG-primed and subunit vaccine-boosted strategy. Although AMH alone could

not reduce significantly CFU in lung tissues of infected mice over that of BCG, when it was combined with AMM, interestingly, fewer CFUs were found than the BCG group. AMM might induce immunity to bacteria in active multiplication condition, but inclusion of AMH progestogen antagonist potentially induced immune protection against dormant bacteria. Because of the comprehensive immune protection against replicating and dormant M. tuberculosis, the multi-stage vaccine, AMM + AMH, induced the most obvious protective effect among the BCG, BCG plus Ag85B or AMM or AMH groups (Fig. 4). In conclusion, AMH vaccine could generate strong antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Only AMM + AMH boosting led to more pronounced M. tuberculosis clearance from the lungs of mice than BCG alone. Meanwhile, the vaccine induced higher immune responses and presented small lesions. The combination of fusion protein AMM and AMH containing antigens both from replicating and dormant M. tuberculosis may be a promising multi-stage vaccine to boost BCG primed immunity for better protective efficacy. This work was funded by the National Major Science and Technology Projects of China (2008ZX-10003-01305,

2008zx1000301104) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (2006AA02z420). Phospholipase D1
“Efficient presentation of peptide-MHC class I (pMHC-I) complexes to immune T cells should benefit from a stable peptide-MHC-I interaction. However, it has been difficult to distinguish stability from other requirements for MHC-I binding, for example, affinity. We have recently established a high-throughput assay for pMHC-I stability. Here, we have generated a large database containing stability measurements of pMHC-I complexes, and re-examined a previously reported unbiased analysis of the relative contributions of antigen processing and presentation in defining cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunogenicity [Assarsson et al., J. Immunol. 2007. 178: 7890–7901].

Therefore, the attenuating effect of AZM on GVHD might be due par

Therefore, the attenuating effect of AZM on GVHD might be due partly to its control of bacteria. Concerning the timing and dose of oral AZM, we chose a regimen of 100 mg/kg orally for 5 days starting from day −2 to day 2. Amsden et al. [55] reported that the blood concentration of the drug in humans became stable (0·5–1·0 mg/ml) after 3 or 5 days of oral AZM. The 100 mg/kg/day Ceritinib dosage was used because

it corresponds to the human dosage after size correction [56]. Accumulating evidence indicates that early interaction between allogeneic T lymphocytes and residual recipient APCs immediately after allo-BMT is critical for eliciting acute GVHD [6, 10]. Zhang et al. [57] studied the kinetic window during which recipient APCs elicited acute GVHD in a murine model and demonstrated that recipient DCs were activated and aggregated rapidly in T lymphocyte-rich areas of the spleen within 6 h after lethal irradiation. By 5 days after irradiation, <1% of recipient DCs were detectable, but the activated donor CD8+ T lymphocytes had already undergone as many as seven divisions. This indicates that, although recipient DCs disappear rapidly after allo-BMT, they first prime donor

T lymphocytes and play a critical role in Z-VAD-FMK in vitro triggering donor CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated GVHD. In our transplantation model, AZM-treated recipients developed GVHD in the later phase. Although Zhang et al. [57] demonstrated the critical, early role of DCs in initiating acute GVHD, they also found that a small number of radio-resistant recipient DCs remained even at 4 months after allo-BMT

and pointed out the possibility that they might be important in amplifying the GVHD response. Further studies are necessary to elucidate later events in the induction of acute GVHD. Taken together, CYTH4 our results suggest that blockade of DC–T lymphocyte interaction by inactivating DCs with AZM, i.e. DC targeting, might require administration of the drug for a short period before and after BMT. It is this period that should be targeted in an attempt to attenuate acute GVHD. Moreover, this treatment might not be accompanied by suppression of the beneficial GVL effect, as oral AZM had no effect on the lymphocyte functions of mice. AZM already has a history of use in the treatment of bacterial infections, so its administration should also be safe in patients undergoing BMT for haematological disorders. Similarly to bortezomib [23], AZM could be used singly or in conjunction with immunosuppressants to prevent acute GVHD in various clinical settings. AZM also seems to have potential for use in treating already developed GVHD. Further studies of the in-vivo effects of AZM in allogeneic BMT are clearly warranted. We thank Dr Takashi Iwamoto of Chubu College of Life and Health Sciences for technical advice and Miyuki Namikata for technical assistance.