However, the Rhine River also carries anomalously

high co

However, the Rhine River also carries anomalously

high concentrations of lanthanum (La), which produce very large positive La anomalies in normalized REE distribution patterns. These positive La anomalies first occur north of the City of Worms and then decrease in size downstream, but are still significant approximately 400 km downstream, close to the German-Dutch border. click here The strong La enrichment is of anthropogenic origin and can be traced back to effluent from a production plant for fluid catalytic cracking catalysts at Rhine river-km 447.4. This effluent is characterized by extremely high dissolved total REE and La concentrations of up to 52 mg/kg and 49 mg/kg, respectively. Such La concentrations are well-above those at which selleck products ecotoxicological effects have been observed. The Rhine River is the first case observed to date, where a river’s dissolved REE inventory is affected and even dominated by anthropogenic La. Our results suggest that almost 1.5 t of anthropogenic dissolved La is exported via the Rhine River into the North Sea per year. This reveals that the growing industrial use of REE (and other formerly “”exotic”" elements) results in their increasing release into the environment, and highlights the urgent need to determine

their geogenic background concentrations in terrestrial surface waters. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new phenolic find more glycoside, benzyl 2-hydroxy-4-O–d-glucopyranosyl-benzoate (1), along with nine known flavonoids, epicatechin-(2O7,48)-ent-epicatechin (2), bis-8,8-catechinylmethane (3), quercetin (4), quercetin-3-O–l-arabinfuranoside (5), quercetin-3-O–l-rhamnopyranoside

(6), astilbin (7), engeletin (8), (2S,3R)-ent-catechin (9), and 2,4-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-6-O–d-glucopyranosyl dihydrochalcone (10), was isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR techniques. This paper describes the isolation, structural elucidation as well as in vitro antioxidant activity of these compounds.”
“Objective-To compare the effects of surgical correction of left displaced abomasum (LDA) by means of omentopexy via right flank laparotomy or 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy on postoperative abomasal emptying rate in lactating dairy cows.

Design-Controlled clinical trial.

Animals-30 lactating dairy cows with an LDA.

Procedures-Cows were alternately assigned to 2 groups of 15 cows each to receive surgical correction of LDA by means of 2-step laparoscopy-guided abomasopexy or omentopexy via right flank laparotomy. A 50% D-Xylose solution (0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb]) was injected into the abomasal lumen during surgery.

falciparum malaria both in adults and children Implications of s

falciparum malaria both in adults and children. Implications of such findings are of primary importance in terms of public health especially in African countries. As most national policies plan to strengthen malaria control to reach the elimination of this disease, anti-malarial drugs such as the artesunate + amodiaquine fixed-dose ACT will play a pivotal role in this process.”
“Melt blowing is used commercially as a one-step process for converting polymer resin directly into a nonwoven mat Of microfibers. The inset

die is often used to produce polymeric fibers in the melt blowing process. The air jet flow field model for the dual slot inset die is established. The flow field model is solved by using the finite difference method. The numerical computation results Of the air velocity, distribution coincide with the experimental data. Then the air drawing model of polymers SYN-117 mw in the melt blowing process established in Our previous research is solved with the aid Of simulation results of the air jet flow field. The final

fiber diameter of the nonwoven fabrics predicted by the air drawing model of polymers tallies with the experimental data. The results show the great potential of this research for the computer assisted design of melt blowing technology and equipment. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 111: 1775-1779, 2009″
“Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is an aromatic plant widely used in folk medicine in the Brazilian semi-arid GS-9973 region. This work aims at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of essential oils from the leaves of L. gracilis (EOLG) when associated with commercial antibiotics against bacterial resistance. The essential

oil obtained by hydrodistillation has 38 chemical phosphatase inhibitor library constituents with thymol (44.4%), carvacrol (22.2%), p-cymene (6.2%) and alpha-pinene (5.6%) as major constituents. Microbiological assays were conducted by direct and gaseous contacts. We demonstrated that EOLG has significant synergism with all antibiotics tested. EOLG decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration of the aminoglycosides and improved their zone of inhibition more than 300% against Staphylococcusaureus and 270% against Pseudomonasaeruginosa. These results demonstrate that natural substances present in EOLG have the capacity to modulate bacterial resistance and can be used as an adjuvant therapy against multi-resistant microorganisms such as S. aureus, Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa.”
“Diabetic cardiomyopathy and nephropathy are two major causes of death of patients with diabetes. Extra generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced by hyperglycemia, is considered as the main reason for the development of these diabetic complications.

746 mu g/g of ergot alkaloids) tall fescue pasture (n = 10; BW =

746 mu g/g of ergot alkaloids) tall fescue pasture (n = 10; BW = 267 +/- 14.5 kg; 5.7 Z-DEVD-FMK research buy ha) from June 14 through at least September 11 (= 89 d). No difference was observed for BW (P < 0.10) for the overall 85-d growth period. Also, no differences were observed for ribeye area/100 kg of HCW (P > 0.91), backfat (P > 0.95), or backfat/100 kg of HCW (P > 0.67). However, ADG (P < 0.01), final BW (P < 0.05), HCW (P < 0.01), dressing percentage (P < 0.01), ribeye area ( P < 0.01), whole liver wet weight (P < 0.01), and whole liver wet weight/100 kg of end BW (P < 0.01) were greater for LE steers than HE steers. After 85 d of grazing, serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase

( P < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase ( P < 0.03), cholesterol (P < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase ( P < 0.01), and prolactin ( P < 0.01) were less for HE than LE steers. At slaughter, hepatic content of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ( P < 0.01) was greater in HE steers than LE steers. Hepatic content of aspartate aminotransferase ( P < 0.01) also was greater, whereas renal and LM content were not (P = 0.42). No differences (P = 0.15) were observed for hepatic, renal, and LM content of alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and 3 glutamate transport proteins. These data indicate Selleckchem Ricolinostat that the HE

steers displayed HM781-36B molecular weight classic endophyte toxicity symptoms for growth and blood variables, classic symptoms that were concomitant with novelly identified altered glucogenic capacity of the liver and decreases in carcass characteristics.”
“A two-laser technique is used to investigate heat spreading

along individual single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles in vacuum and air environments. A 532 nm laser focused on the center of a suspended SWCNT bundle is used as a local heat source, and a 633 nm laser is used to measure the spatial temperature profile along the SWCNT bundle by monitoring the G band downshifts in the Raman spectra. A constant temperature gradient is observed when the SWCNT bundle is irradiated in vacuum, giving direct evidence of diffusive transport of the phonons probed by the Raman laser. In air, however, we observe an exponentially decaying temperature profile with a decay length of about 7 mu m, due to heat dissipation from the SWCNT bundle to the surrounding gas molecules. The thermal conductivity of the suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) is determined from its electrical heating temperature profile as measured in vacuum and the nanotube bundle diameter measured via transmission electron microscopy. Based on the exponential decay curves measured in three different CNTs in air, the heat transfer coefficient between the SWCNTs and the surrounding air molecules is found to range from 1.5 x 10(3) to 7.

“Objectives: To determine the frequency of postoperative v

“Objectives: To determine the frequency of postoperative vomiting (POV) in children submitted to outpatient

surgery and to compare the efficacy of antiemetic drugs in preventing this complication. Background: Nausea and vomiting are MLN2238 supplier common in the immediate postoperative period following anesthetic and surgical procedures. Compared to adults, pediatric patients are more likely to develop postoperative nausea and vomiting, the incidence of which ranges from 8.9% to 42%. Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial included 129 children. The participants were randomized into three prophylactic treatment groups: dexamethasone (n = 43), ondansetron in combination with dexamethasone (n = 44), and placebo (n = 42). The variables studied PCI-34051 manufacturer were the frequency of POV and the incidence of vomiting after the patient had been discharged from hospital, the need for antiemetic rescue therapy in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), need

for hospitalization, and the time the patient remained in the PACU. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Postoperative vomiting occurred in 12.4% of the children, with no statistically significant difference between the groups: 6.8% in the group receiving ondansetron combined with dexamethasone, 14.3% in the placebo group, and 14% in the group that received dexamethasone alone (P = 0.47). Furthermore, no significant difference was found between the groups with respect to the time the children remained in the PACU, and only five patients reported having vomited following discharge from hospital. Conclusions:

The prophylactic use of antiemetic drugs Ferroptosis inhibitor review failed to reduce the incidence of POV in pediatric outpatient surgery with a low emetic potential; therefore, routine prophylaxis may be unnecessary.”
“This work presents a model for describing the shape of the spontaneous emission spectrum from a quantum-well structure. A function is introduced to specify the probability distribution for the effective band gap. Based on this model, the coexisting carrier thermal broadening and effective band gap broadening in the spontaneous emission spectrum can be separated from each other. Applying this model to the spectra of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes reveals that the probability distribution functions are almost Gaussian. Therefore, the emission spectra can be described by an analytical expression with fitted parameters. Possible reasons for this band gap broadening are discussed. The determination of the junction temperatures from the emission spectra and possible deviations of the results thus determined are also elaborated. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3243319]“
“This pilot study tested the hypothesis that dose intensity/dose density treatment may improve the response rate and remission duration in patients with advanced low grade lymphomas.

7%) First isolation occurred, on average, on day 8 following adm

7%). First isolation occurred, on average, on day 8 following admission (range 1-26 days). Genotype analysis of

A. baumannii isolates identified nine distinct PFGE patterns, with predominance of PFGE clone E represented by isolates from 9 patients. Eight ATM/ATR phosphorylation strains were resistant to carbapenems. The genetic relatedness of Acinetobacter baumannii was high, indicating cross-transmission within the ICU setting. These results emphasize the need for measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of A. baumannii in ICU.”
“Background: The development of risk prediction models is of increasing importance in medical research – their use in practice, however, is rare. Among other reasons this might be due to the fact that thorough validation is often lacking. This study focuses on two Bayesian approaches of how to validate a prediction rule for the diagnosis of pneumonia, and compares them with established validation methods.

Methods: Expert knowledge was used to derive a risk prediction model for pneumonia. Data on more than 600 patients presenting with cough and fever at a general practitioner’s practice in Switzerland were collected in order to validate the

SNS-032 chemical structure expert model and to examine the predictive performance of it. Additionally, four modifications of the original model including shrinkage of the regression coefficients, and two Bayesian approaches with the expert model used as prior mean and different weights for the prior covariance matrix were fitted. We quantify the predictive performance of the different methods with respect to calibration and discrimination, using cross-validation.

Results: The predictive performance of the unshrinked regression coefficients was poor when applied BMS 345541 to the Swiss cohort. Shrinkage improved the results, but a Bayesian model formulation with unspecified weight of the informative prior lead

to large AUC and small Brier score, naive and after cross-validation. The advantage of this approach is the flexibility in case of a prior-data conflict.

Conclusions: Published risk prediction rules in clinical research need to be validated externally before they can be used in new settings. We propose to use a Bayesian model formulation with the original risk prediction rule as prior. The posterior means of the coefficients, given the validation data showed best predictive performance with respect to cross-validated calibration and discriminative ability.”
“Pancreatic cysts involve a wide spectrum of pathologies from post-inflammatory cysts to malignant neoplasms. Pancreatic pseudocysts, serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystadenomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and solid pseudopapillary tumors occur most frequently.

Additionally, C-Yoichi L-TC adsorbed tightly to a lactose-affinit

Additionally, C-Yoichi L-TC adsorbed tightly to a lactose-affinity gel column. These results strongly suggest that the unusual recognition of the Gal moiety on the cells could be due to a variation and/or a truncation in the C-terminal-half of the unique C-Yoichi HA-33 protein.”
“We formulate a quantitative theory of an electromotive force of spin origin, i.e., spin-motive force, by the equation-of-motion approach. In a ferromagnetic metal, electrons couple to the local magnetization via the exchange interaction. The electrons are affected by spin dependent forces due

to this interaction and the spin-motive force and the anomalous Hall effect appears. We have revealed that the origin of these phenomena is a misalignment between the conduction electron GDC-0973 clinical trial spin and the local magnetization. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565398]“
“Profound hemostatic changes have been observed among thalassemic patients. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis Metabolism inhibitor inhibitor (TAFI) is a newly discovered protein that potentially attenuates fibrinolysis. The authors aimed to investigate plasma level of TAFI in beta-thalassemia patients in relation to clinical severity and hemostatic alteration. Fifty-one thalassemic patients (mean age 10.79 +/- 5.59 years) (21 splenectomized

thalassemia major patients, 18 nonsplenectomized thalassemia major patients, 12 nonsplenectomized thalassemia intermedia) were recruited from Pediatric Hematology Clinic, Ain Shams University; in addition, 32 healthy age-and sex-matched controls (10.31 +/- 5.58 years) were also included. In addition to clinical assessment, laboratory investigations included complete blood count (CBC), hemoglobin electrophoresis, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT), liver function tests, viral hepatitis markers, serum ferritin, and plasma TAFI levels. Nine out of 51 patients (17.5%) suffered from bleeding manifestations mainly in the form of epistaxis; none of the studied patients had thromboembolism. check details Significant reduction in TAFI

levels was shown in thalassemic patients compared to controls (P<.0001), in splenectomized compared to nonsplenectomized thalassemia group (P<.0001), and in thalassemia major compared to thalassemia intermedia group (P<.0001). Negative correlation was present between TAFI levels and both liver enzymes and serum ferritin levels (P<.05). Thalassemic patients suffering from bleeding showed lower mean TAFI levels compared to those not suffering from bleeding (P<.001). Marked reduction in TAFI levels was observed in thalassemic patients with splenectomy, altered liver functions, and poor chelation who therefore might be at a higher risk for altered hemostasis.”
“Multispecies probiotics have been reported to be more effective than monostrain probiotics in health promoting for the host.

Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that uninsured pati

Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that uninsured patients (odds ratio [OR], ABT-737 in vivo 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-28.2; P value 0.01)

and males (OR, 2.8; CI, 1.2-6.8; P = 0.02) had statistically significant associations with forgotten stents. Men were 2.8 times more likely to have forgotten stents than females. Patients without health insurance were six times more likely to have forgotten stents than patients with insurance. As efforts are made to prevent forgotten stents, increased attention should be given to these higher-risk patient populations.”
“PCB levels in fish (collected from local rivers), atmosphere and human milk samples have been studied to determine the exposure levels of PCBs for local residents and e-waste workers in Guiyu, a major electronic waste scrapping center in China. The source appointment and correlation analyses showed that homologue composition of PCBs in 7 species of fish were consistent and similar to commercial PCBs Aroclor 1248. PCB levels in air surrounding the open burning site were significantly higher than those in residential area. Inhalation exposure contributed 27% and 93% to the total body loadings (the sum of dietary and inhalation exposure) of the local residents, and e-waste workers engaged in open burning respectively. Total PCB concentrations in human milk ranged from N.D. to

57.6 ng/g lipid, with an average of 9.50 ng/g lipid. The present results indicated that commercial PCBs derived from e-waste recycling are major sources of PCBs accumulating in different environmental AZD9291 price media, leading to the accumulation of high chlorinated biphenyls in human beings. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To evaluate the effects of cervical artificial disc replacement (ADR) and anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF) on adjacent spinal alignments.

The IPI-549 concentration cohort

consisted of 33 patients who undergone single-level cervical ADR (15 patients) and ACDF (18 patients) for radiculopathy, who had not had any previous spine surgery, and who had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Whole-spine lateral radiographs were taken at the pre-operative and follow-up consultations. Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and sagittal balance were measured each time. The patients filled out pre-operative and follow-up functional evaluation forms including visual analogue scale (VAS) of neck and arm. The mean follow-up durations of patients who had cervical ADR and ACDF were 28 +/- A 5.0 and 30 +/- A 5.8 months, respectively. The patients having ACDF had the higher mean age (53 +/- A 9.0 years) than that of patients with cervical ADR (45 +/- A 11.7 years).

The cervical lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in cervical ADR group increased significantly more than those of the ACDF group in follow-up assessment (P = 0.011 and 0.012).

We chose

We chose hypoxia-inducible factor cancer a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 109 CFU day-1 of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption

of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant

increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates see more with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population.”
“A 56-year-old male with recurrent painless focal neuropathies and a family history of peripheral neuropathy of unknown etiology presented with progressively worsening of impaired sensations and weakness in his lower extremities. His initial electrodiagnostic evaluation was suggestive of severe sensory and motor peripheral polyneuropathy. The genetic testing was performed for familial causes of peripheral neuropathy as there

was a family history of peripheral neuropathy of unknown etiology. The patient was found to have 1.5-Mb deletion in the PMP22 gene which was confirmatory of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). He developed progressive upper and lower extremity weakness, bulbar dysfunction and widespread RepSox manufacturer fasciculations during the course of his illness. He was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This is the second reported case of HNPP associated with ALS. We discuss significant clinical and electrodiagnostic findings of this interesting case.”
“Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most common organisms causing endogenous endophthalmitis in East Asia. Herein we report the cases of two diabetic patients with K. pneumoniae renal abscess and endophthalmitis. Although endogenous endophthalmitis is rare, both internists and ophthalmologists should be alert to the possibility of endogenous endophthalmitis in diabetic patients caused by K. pneumoniae renal abscess. Intravitreal ceftazidime, amikacin, and corticosteroid at an appropriate dosage are required for cases of endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sleep deficiency is linked with morbidity, including degradations

Sleep deficiency is linked with morbidity, including degradations in psychosocial functioning, (e.g., depression and stress), which are recognized risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to describe the frequency of sleep deficiency across

early gestation (10-20 weeks) and whether sleep deficiency is associated with reports of more depressive symptoms and stress. Methods: Pregnant women (N=160) with no self-reported sleep or psychological disorder provided sleep check details data collected via diary and actigraphy during early pregnancy: 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks’ gestation. Sleep deficiency was defined as short sleep duration, insufficient sleep, or insomnia. Symptoms of depression and stress were collected at the same three time points. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze the data. Results: Approximately 28%-38% met criteria for sleep deficiency for at least one time point in early gestation. Women who were sleep deficient across all time points reported more perceived stress than those who were not sleep deficient (p<0.01). Depressive

symptoms were higher among women with diary-defined sleep deficiency across all time points (p=0.02). Discussion: Sleep deficiency is a useful concept to describe sleep recognized to be disturbed Compound C in pregnancy. Women with persistent sleep deficiency appear to be at greater risk for impairments in psychosocial functioning during early gestation. These associations are important since psychosocial functioning is a recognized correlate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Sleep deficiency may be another important risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes.”
“The aim of this work was to assess the reproducibility of ultrasound parameters of vascular function, since these measurements are currently recommended by the guidelines for the evaluation of the cardiovascular risk. Twenty subjects (51 +/- A 17 years, 11 men) had vascular ultrasound (Aloka Prosound alpha 10) performed by two observers, at the level of the right common carotid artery

for assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), “”wall tracking”", and “”wave-intensity analysis”", and at the level of the right brachial artery for the assessment of flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Wave intensity is a hemodynamic index, GSK690693 cell line evaluating ventriculo-arterial interaction and can be measured in real time by a double-beam ultrasound technique through simultaneous recording of carotid arterial blood flow velocity and diameter. Carotido-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using the Complior method. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed during a first session, when three consecutive acquisitions were made (first observer -> second observer -> first observer); repeatability was evaluated 1 week later (second observer). The most reproducible and repeatable parameters were PWV (intraobserver +/- 3.3%, interobserver +/- 2.6%, repeatability +/- 5.6%) and IMT (+/- 3.7, +/- 4.

People aged 45-64 years who are out of the labour force due to ba

People aged 45-64 years who are out of the labour force due to back problems have significantly less chance of having any accumulated wealth. While almost all individuals who are in full-time employment with no chronic health condition

have some wealth accumulated, a significantly smaller proportion (89%) of those who have retired early due to back problems do. Of those who have retired early due to back problems who do have some wealth, on average the total value of this wealth is 87% less (95% CI: -90 to -84%) than the total value of wealth accumulated by those who have remained in full-time employment with no health condition controlling for age, sex and education. The financial burden placed on those retiring early due to back problems PLX3397 is likely to cause financial stress in the future, as not only have retired individuals lost an income stream from paid employment, but they also have little or no wealth to draw upon. Preventing early retirement due to back problems will increase the time individuals

will have to amass savings to finance their retirement and to protect against financial shocks.”
“The oxidation with SeO2 of a methyl group linked to an sp(2)-hybridized carbon in the product of the intramolecular iodoetherification of cis-carveol afforded (1R,5R,7S)-7-iodomethyl-7-methyl-6-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-3-en-4-carbaldehyde and [(1R,5R,7S)-7-iodomethyl-7-methyl-6-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-4-yl]methanol that were oxidized to methyl (1R,5R,7S)-7-iodomethyl-7-methyl-6-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-4-carboxylate. The latter by the Zn-promoted opening of the gamma-oxide ring was converted into the target chiral block, methyl (4R,6R)-6-hydroxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-encarboxylate.”
“Some case reports described the usage of bone cement mixed with antibiotics. However, there are few

studies that referred to experimental research of calcium phosphate cement with antibiotics. Thus, we mixed vancomycin and amikacin with bone cement in various concentrations and examined its characterization and antibacterial activity. As a result, 6.25 wt% over the concentration could not mix with cement. With an increase in the antibiotic content, the hardening time was prolonged and the compressive strength tended to decrease. In consistency, vancomycin mixed cement increased, whereas amikacin mixed cement decreased. The elution of antibiotics showed sustained release. In conclusion, the characteristics of the bone cement changed based on the amount of antibiotics added, and calcium phosphate cement is useful as a drug carrier.”
“Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is one of the most common treatment options in the management of kidney stones in children. While colon perforation during PCNL is reported as a rare complication in adults, there are scarce data regarding colon perforation during pediatric PCNL.