07 vs 1.42 in sedentary). However, in contrast to WT, exercise
training in Mas-KO did not change Ang II/Ang-(1–7) ratio in the LV (1.71 vs 1.42 in sedentary mice). Thus, although in the blood there was a change toward a reduction in Ang II relative to Ang-(1–7), in the LV Ang II levels were higher than Ang-(1–7) levels. Physical training induced a higher decrease (90%) in ACE mRNA expression in WT mice (0.003 ± 0.0007 AU vs 1 ± 0.3 AU in sedentary WT; Fig. 2) accompanied by a 3 fold increase in AT1 receptor expression (3 ± 0.8 AU vs 1 ± 0.4 AU in control WT; Fig. 2) and a 70% decrease in ACE2 expression (Fig. 2). No significant alteration was induced by exercise in the expression of ACE, ACE2 or AT1 in Mas-KO mice (Fig. 2). Thus, comparing the ratio ACE/ACE2 in Ipilimumab ic50 WT mice, we observed that exercise training in WT mice induced a great reduction in ACE/ACE2 balance (0.001 selleck chemical vs 1.0 compared to sedentary WT mice). However, in trained Mas-KO exercise there was an increase in ACE/ACE2 ratio (0.10 vs
0.03 in sedentary Mas-KO mice). These changes will favor Ang-(1–7) accumulation in WT, but not in Mas-KO mice, in which the accumulation of Ang II is being favored. The main result of the present study was the observation that 6 weeks of swimming training in FVB/N mice lacking Mas induced cardiac hypertrophy which was associated to an increase in collagen I and III mRNA expression. The increase in collagen may be related to an inversion of the balance between Ang II and Ang-(1–7) actions in the heart of Mas-KO, favoring a stronger and unopposed Cell Penetrating Peptide influence of Ang II. Further, our data showed that the lack of Mas receptor produces a reduction in circulating levels of Ang-(1–7) resulting in an systemic unbalance of Ang II/Ang-(1–7) relationship. The role of the RAS on the development of cardiovascular system
hypertrophy has been well studied. It is well documented that Ang II acting through AT1 receptor produces a hypertrophic and profibrotic effect in heart  and . Different studies have shown that ACE2 and Ang-(1–7) exert an important role on cardiovascular homoeostasis producing vasodilatation in different territories and cardiac/vascular antifibrotic and antitrophic effects ,  and  that oppose those of Ang II actions. In addition, Ang-(1–7) inhibits cardiac myocytes growth through activation of the Mas receptor  preventing pathological remodeling through NO/cGMP dependent pathway  and . The present findings reinforce the importance of Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis in cardiovascular hypertrophy by showing that Mas deletion induces deleterious effects in the heart of trained mice. Mas-KO trained animals presented an increased expression of matrix proteins probably due to the lack of Mas-mediated actions of Ang-(1–7), associated to an increase in Ang II and AT1 levels in the heart.