Nineteen of the 27 vitrified oocytes survived warming: 14 oocytes

Nineteen of the 27 vitrified oocytes survived warming: 14 oocytes from the vitrified group and three oocytes selleck products from the fresh cycle were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eleven embryos, including three from the fresh cycle, were biopsied on day 3 post insemination. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization was performed for the specific chromosomes involved in translocation. Only two embryos from the cryopreservation cycles were diagnosed as normal/balanced, one of which was transferred on day 5 post insemination. A normal healthy female infant was born at week 42 of gestation. (C) 2012, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published

by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is increasingly giving rise to large economic losses in the agricultural industry. The current methods used for detection and control of bTB (skin test and interferon-gamma) lack desired sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and reliable bTB serological based assay is urgently required. An antibody assay using combinations of strain-specific mycobacterial antigens could resolve both specificity and sensitivity issues. We analyzed the ability of a series of selected mycobacterial antigens to outline this website a humoral immune response in a rabbit model experimentally

challenged with different mycobacterium. Antibodies specific for three antigens, MTB40, ESAT6 and CFP10, were present in serum 2 weeks post-challenge (early indicator), while two other antigens, Rv3870 and Rv1580c, could be detected from 8 to 11 weeks post-challenge. These selected mycobacterial antigens did not exhibit any cross-reactivity with avian PPD and only a very low positivity with bovine PPD. This data suggests that this panel of strain-specific mycobacterial antigens could be used for identification of Mycobacterium bovis infection in serum samples. The combinatorial application of these antigens could form part of a serum field test which may assist the future diagnosis of TB. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The adipokines produced from adipose tissues influence energy homeostasis, resulting in alterations of the adipokine concentrations. This process may be associated with fertility impairment, resulting in recurrent miscarriage. The present study investigated whether there was any association between the UCP2 45-bp indel polymorphism and the adipokine gene polymorphisms, namely leptin 2549 (C/A), adeponectin 276 (G/T) and 45 (T/G) and resistin 420 (C/G) in 200 non-obese recurrent miscarriage patients and 300 ethnically matched negative controls. These markers were studied using gene-specific PCR single specific primer and restriction fragment length polymorphism. For leptin 2549 and adeponectin 276, the A allele and G allele showed 3.42-fold (P = 0.0001) and 1.36-fold (P = 0.036) increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, respectively.

0005), and 62 5% were preceded by recurrent bleeding (p = 0 001)

0005), and 62.5% were preceded by recurrent bleeding (p = 0.001). Comparison of elective and emergent deliveries revealed no clinical significant difference in maternal outcome.

Conclusions: Antenatal bleeding is associated with an increased risk of emergent delivery. Emergent delivery in a tertiary care facility with immediate access to blood bank and ICU capabilities does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes. Consequently, some patients may be candidates for delivery later than 34 weeks of gestation.”
“Objectives: The main aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical entheseal

involvement at lower limbs by ultrasound (US) in patients with psoriasis. The secondary aim was to determine the interobserver reliability of the Glasgow Ultrasound Enthesitis Scoring PD98059 in vitro System (GUESS) and power Doppler (PD) technique in the assessment of enthesopathy.

Methods: The study selleck screening library was conducted on 45 patients with psoriasis and 45 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. All patients with no clinical evidence

of arthritis or enthesitis underwent an US examination. All US findings were identified according to GUESS. The interobserver reliability was calculated in 15 patients with psoriasis.

Results: A total of 450 entheses in 45 patients with psoriasis were evaluated by US. In 148 of 450 (32.9%) entheses, grayscale US found signs indicative of enthesopathy. In 4/450 (0.9%) entheses PD signal was detected. In the healthy population, US found signs of enthesopathy in 38 of 450 (8.4%) entheses and no PD signal was detected. The

GUESS score was significantly higher in patients with psoriasis than in healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Both concordance correlation CDK inhibitor coefficient and un-weighted K values for US findings showed an excellent agreement (0.906 and 0.890, respectively).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that both grayscale US and PD findings indicative of enthesopathy were more frequent in patients with psoriasis. The US ability to detect signs of subclinical enthesopathy should be the object of longitudinal investigations to define its value in predicting the clinical onset of psoriatic arthritis. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 40:407-412″
“Resistance is also an increasing problem for antibiotic based therapy of Helicobacter Pylori infection. A paradigm shift in the treatment of infectious disease may be useful to prevent the further emergence of antibiotic resistance. Some daily-consumed food and beverages, including tea, lactobacillus, alcohol and garlic, have anti-helicobacter activities in-vitro. In epidemiological studies consumption of tea was associated with decreased risk of Helicobacter Pylori infection. Supplementation of Lactobacillus improved the tolerance of antibiotic based Helicobacter eradication therapy. However, few controlled clinical trials have been published and most are methodologically weak.

Each reported standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for skin cance

Each reported standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for skin cancer types on any site that were uniformly less than unity compared with the general population. Only the Danish cohort assessed skin cancers

specifically on past burn injury sites and found a burn-site-specific SIR of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4-2.7) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 0.7 (95% CI = 0.4-1.1) for basal cell carcinoma, and 0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-1.2) for melanoma.

CONCLUSIONS Available epidemiologic data suggest that burn patients are not at higher risk of skin cancers in general, although a modest excess of SCC in burn scars cannot be excluded, nor can excess risk with longer follow-up. Risk of skin cancer in scars other than burn scars has not been investigated epidemiologically.

Renovo, Ltd., UK provided funding for this study. A. Green has been a consultant for Renovo Ltd.”
“A multiscale modeling approach is proposed to Luminespib simulate the

mechanical response in porous energetic mixtures during shock loading. A spherically symmetric single pore model is developed that incorporates viscoplastic and temperature dependent effects for a mixture. Our proposed model introduces parameters that selleck compound capture microstructural effects due to changes in mixture morphology, particle size, and magnitude of the shock load applied to the mixture. These parameters are used to describe geometric, inertial, and constituent interaction effects. The proposed pore collapse model is incorporated into MEK162 purchase a gas-gun simulation and the parameters are studied

with comparisons to experimental results for an intermetallic powder mixture containing Ni+Al.”
“ObjectivePrevious research has demonstrated a significant relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain. While several models attempt to explain this relationship, significant questions remain regarding factors that may play a role in this interaction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether posttraumatic cognitions mediate the relationship between PTSD and pain.

DesignThe sample comprised 136 veterans who presented to the VA Ann Arbor Health Care System seeking evaluation and treatment in the PTSD clinic. Participants completed the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, along with other assessments as part of their evaluation.

ResultsThis study showed that the majority of patients (86.8%) reported some problems with pain. Further, the findings indicate that there is a significant relationship between PTSD severity and pain severity. Posttraumatic cognitions were not related to the level of pain experienced, but they were related to pain interference in this population.

ConclusionsIn particular, negative cognitions regarding the self were associated with the level of pain-related interference, and partially mediated the relationship between PTSD and pain.

A putative auxin response element in the CRL5 promoter region spe

A putative auxin response element in the CRL5 promoter region specifically interacted with a rice ARF, demonstrating that CRL5 may be a direct target of an ARF, similar to CRL1/ADVENTITIOUS ROOTLESS1 (ARL1) that also regulates crown root initiation. Selleckchem Cyclopamine A crl1 crl5 double mutant displayed an additive phenotype, indicating that these two genes function in different genetic pathways for crown root initiation. In addition, ProACT: CRL5/WT showed a cytokinin-resistant phenotype for crown root initiation, and also up-regulated the

expression of two negative regulators of cytokinin signaling, OsRR1 and OsRR2, which were downregulated in crl5. Transgenic plants that over-expressed OsRR1 under the control of the CRL5 promoter

in a crl5 mutant background produced a higher number of crown roots than the crl5 plant. Taken together, these results indicate that auxin-induced CRL5 promotes crown root initiation through repression of cytokinin signaling by positively regulating type-A RR, OsRR1.”
“Despite the growing evidence of poor psychosocial adjustment, at present there is no formal method of assessment of social adjustment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy PFTα inhibitor (TLE). First, we assessed social adjustment in patients with TLE using a self-report questionnaire and compared the results with those from quality-of-life (QOL) scales. Second, we verified the influence of cognitive performance and clinical variables of epilepsy on social adjustment and QOL We evaluated 35 people with TLE

and 38 healthy controls. Patients had worse social adjustment, and it was correlated with worse perception of cognitive function. Attention and verbal memory dysfunctions were negatively correlated with social adjustment. However, there was no significant correlation between cognitive performance and QOL Regarding clinical variables, persons with left TLE showed worse social adjustment and patients with frequent seizures showed worse QOL These findings indicate the relevance of evaluating social adjustment and emphasize the importance of cognitive rehabilitation to improved social adjustment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Z-IETD-FMK mw Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, we used rheological techniques to study both the cure characteristics and the degree of cure of polyurethane acrylate adhesive, a type of reactive adhesive used in hard disk component assembly. These results were then correlated with the tensile shear strengths of adhesives. Here, the cure characteristics of polyurethane adhesive were investigated at isothermal conditions ranging from 25 to 120 degrees C. From the rheological results, the gelation time, the vitrification time, as well as the time required to reach the maximum degree of cure, decreased when increasing the curing temperature.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J this website Appl Polym Sci 114: 3882-3888, 2009″
“Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Most human cases present as localized or generalized cutaneous infections. An invasive septic form, usually associated with endocarditis, has rarely been described. We report here an invasive

infection caused by E. rhusiopathiae without endocardium involvement. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intra-abdominal abscess due to this pathogen. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study was designed to optimize the process conditions, such as steaming, drying, and extracting, selleckchem for obtaining the maximum

content of prosapogenin (Rg3, Rg2, Rh1, and Rh2) from red ginseng, which has antitumor and anti-cancer properties. The steaming process was performed in an autoclave and the drying and extracting processes were done in dryer and heat extractor, respectively, and content of each prosapogenin was analyzed by HPLC. In the steaming process, prosapogenin values did not show any significant increase at 80 or 90A degrees C, but tended to increase sharply as the steaming period became longer at 100A degrees C, and the maximum value was obtained at 100A degrees C with 6 h of steaming without any significant difference between local Gyeonggi areas. Drying red ginseng at 70A degrees C for 24 h was the optimal condition to enhance prosapogenin extraction without affecting the quality. Maximal crude saponin and prosapogenin contents were obtained using 70% ethanol as the solvent at 70A degrees C in the extracting Selleck Ricolinostat process. Using these standardization processes such as steaming,

drying, and extraction, maximum prosapogenin values could be obtained at ginseng factories.”
“Acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed in an infant with fever and pancytopenia. Intestinal obstruction was present at diagnosis and laparotomy performed after failure of conservative management demonstrated leukemic infiltration of the resected terminal ileum. Fever and intestinal obstruction persisted, necessitating a second ileal resection, which revealed invasive aspergillosis. Subsequent retrospective analysis identified occasional fungal hyphae in the initial resection specimen. With the combination of intensive chemotherapy and aggressive prolonged antifungal therapy the child survived. Invasive aspergillosis may unusually present at nonpulmonary sites at initial presentation of acute leukemia. Microbiological or histological diagnosis is needed to guide aggressive appropriate management.”
“A new epoxy resin containing both binaphthyl and biphenyl moieties in the skeleton (BLBPE) was synthesized and confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy.

Conclusions Our results

support the idea that during har

Conclusions. Our results

support the idea that during hard economic times unemployment and related stressors may be strong determinants of parental smoking when a child in the home has asthma. Given that the BFRSS is a cross-sectional survey, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the causal pathway connecting unemployment, global well-being, and parental smoking.”
“Purpose find more of review

To review the diagnosis of circumflex occlusion, and why it is important for patient care.

Recent findings

The ECG is an essential tool for identifying patients who might benefit from reperfusion therapy with ST segment elevation being a requirement. However, circumflex occlusions are often not recognized. Patients with circumflex ISRIB acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) often present without ST segment elevation even when there is a total occlusion causing a full-thickness inferobasal (previously called posterior) infarction. Recent registries and trials show overrepresentation of circumflex occlusions in non-ST elevation ACS and underrepresentation in ST elevation myocardial infarction populations. This is because usually only the 12-lead ECG has been recorded. Leads V-7-V-9 should be recorded if there is a clinical

suspicion of circumflex territory involvement, such as ST depression in leads GSK2245840 research buy V-1-V-3, or presentation with a normal 12-lead ECG with hemodynamic compromise.


If ST elevation in the circumflex territory is not recognized, patients may be treated inappropriately as having a non-ST elevation ACS without having primary percutaneous coronary intervention or receiving early administration of fibrinolytic therapy. There is a large opportunity for saving thousands of lives worldwide if circumflex occlusions are recognized and treated appropriately.”
“Histidine-rich protein-2 (HRPII) secreted by Plasmodium falciparum finds its use as a compelling marker in malaria

diagnosis and follow-up. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against P. falciparum HRPII are widely used in antibody-based diagnostic systems to detect HRPII protein in blood of malaria-suspected individuals. In this study, a set of five monoclonal antibodies against recombinant HRPII (rHRPII) were generated and assessed for their potential in diagnostics. Three among the five generated MAbs were of IgG1 isotype and the remaining were of IgM isotype. Probing the MAbs against proved P. falciparum infected serum and pooled control sera by immunoblotting revealed that the MAbs were successful in exposing malarial infection. Collectively, the generated MAbs have the potential to be used in immuno-based diagnostic systems uncovering P. falciparum infections.”

7 +/- 1 6 lines) in the other 30 patients


7 +/- 1.6 lines) in the other 30 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: After implantation of the small-aperture intracorneal inlay, there was an improvement in all tested reading performance parameters in emmetropic presbyopic patients; the improvement was the result of an increased depth of field. These 2-year results indicate that the inlay is an effective treatment

for presbyopia.”
“Voluntary feed intake in sows after parturition may be related to the capacity of the sow to cope with the numerous changes occurring around farrowing. This experiment was undertaken to investigate whether the feed intake during lactation was related to the reactivity of the sow during gestation and plasma Trp and cortisol concentrations. On d 58 of pregnancy, 37 sows were individually placed in a novel environment, and their behavior was observed during a 5-min open-field test. This test allowed the selection of 12 reactive Domatinostat (R) and 8 nonreactive (NR) sows for the study. Sows were fed 3 kg of a standard gestation diet/d before farrowing and a standard lactation diet ad libitum thereafter. The behavioral reactivity check details of sows when a human touched their neck in the farrowing crate was evaluated on d 72 of gestation, and their behavior during farrowing was analyzed. Sows

were catheterized on d 70 of gestation, and blood samples were taken after an overnight fast on d 37 before farrowing, daily during the week before and the week after parturition, and

on d 14 and 21 of lactation for plasma Trp and cortisol determination. The NR sows were less reactive to human contact (P = 0.02), had a shorter farrowing duration (P = 0.02), and tended to have a shorter birth interval between piglets (P = 0.09) than the R sows. Feed intake was greater for the NR sows than for the R sows during wk 1 of lactation (P = 0.02), as well as during the whole lactation (P = 0.03). Plasma cortisol concentration was maximal on the day after farrowing (P = 0.01) and returned to basal concentration within 4 d postpartum. No relationship was observed between sow behavior and plasma concentration of cortisol. For both groups of sows, plasma concentrations of Trp between d ACY-241 molecular weight 2 and 4 postpartum were less than during gestation (P < 0.05). The NR sows had decreased plasma Trp concentrations compared with the R sows during wk 1 of lactation (P = 0.02). A low reactivity during gestation was associated with behavior of the sow that was favorable to piglet survival during farrowing, increased feed intake, and decreased plasma Trp concentration during wk 1 of lactation. Further research is needed to elucidate whether Trp or Trp metabolites are related to reactivity and ADFI of the reproducing sow.”
“The Fourier’s law of heat conduction is invalid in extreme conditions, such as the second sound in solids and anomalous heat conduction in nanosystems.

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009;

(The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2009; 21: 335-341)”
“Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1

and CYP2J have been studied in various mammals, but not in pig.

The sequences encoding pig CYP1B1 and CYP2J34 were isolated from liver cDNA by RACE and sequenced. The open reading frames of pig CYP1B1 showed a higher sequence homology to bovine 1B1 (89%) than to dog 1B1 (88%) or to human 1B1 (85%). On the other hand, the coding sequence of pig CYP2J34 showed a similar homology (83-85%) to CYP2J of these species. From the substrate recognition sites (SRS 1-6) analysis of the deduced proteins, it was found that the porcine CYP1B1, unlike CYP2J34, completely shared the six SRS with the bovine counterpart. RT-PCR analysis of CYP1B1 and CYP2J34 expression in ten porcine tissues revealed that CYP1B1 was principally expressed in adrenal gland, whereas CYP2J34 was predominantly expressed in small intestine. These results further support the pig as an useful model for human. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“While it has proven useful as a sensor and as a system for exploring and examining nonlinear oscillation, the harmonic detection of resonance (HDR) method has not been fully derived and explained analytically. We develop the equation of motion for the oscillation of a cantilever which is electrostatically driven into resonance and compared to experiment. The resonance signal is measured both BVD-523 by a photodetector (mechanical signal) and a charge amplifier (electrical signal) and is found to be in good agreement with the derived equation of motion: Finally; a few nonlinear phenomena observed in our HDR experiments will be examined analytically. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3204668]“

which is essential for malignancies to progress, depends on various signalling proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). Microvessel density (MVD) is frequently used to evaluate angiogenesis. This BMS-345541 nmr study assessed the relationship between expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, MVD and the survival time in dogs with lymphoma. VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically and microvessel profiles were counted in 34 lymphoma samples. Seventy-nine percent of the samples showed high VEGF expression and 62% were highly positive for VEGFR-1; VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was mostly negative. Dogs treated with chemotherapy had a median survival time of 266 days, but no significant relationships were found between overall survival time, MVD and expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2. In this study, VEGF its receptors and the MVD were no prognostic factors in dogs with lymphoma. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of

Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study of

a population sample from south of Brazil composed of 586 independent vitiligo-affected individuals. Different strategies of case-control analysis were employed to test for association between the three most common vitiligo clinical types and age of onset, family history of vitiligo, occurrence of Koebner phenomenon (KP) and presence MRT67307 of autoimmune co-morbidity.

Results: Individuals affected by segmental vitiligo showed lower average age of onset (16; years) when compared with vulgaris (23.9 years) and acrofacial cases (29 years) (p < 0.001). The distribution of occurrence of KP, family history of vitiligo and co-occurrence of autoimmune disease followed a gradient pattern, with high, intermediate and low chance of occurrence of all three variables observed for vulgaris, acrofacial and segmental vitiligo, respectively (p < 0.001 for overall distribution).

Conclusion: Results indicate a uniform pattern of association between

vitiligo clinical forms and KP, positive vitiligo family history and occurrence of co-morbidity autoimmune. The impact of the observed pattern of association over disease prognosis and classification is discussed. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland ad. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. We categorized the four types of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine into two groups. We biochemically investigated selleck screening library the genetic differences in the osteogenic differentiation potency between the two MK-2206 chemical structure groups.

Objective. To investigate the genetic differences in the osteogenic differentiation potency according to the OPLL classification.

Summary of Background Data. Clinical studies on OPLL have revealed that the risk of progression of the ossification area is greatest for continuous and mixed type OPLL. However, until now, these four types of OPLL have been studied as a single condition.

Methods. We categorized the four types of OPLL into the OPLL continuous (continuous or mixed type) and OPLL segmental groups (segmental or circumscribed type). Paraspinal ligaments

were aseptically obtained from OPLL patients during surgery. The fibroblast-like cells that migrated from the explants were used for experiments. The cells were placed in a 60-mm culture dishes for total ribonucleic acid preparation and 12 well microplates for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity staining. After cultures reached confluence, the cells were cultured in osteogenic medium. The messenger ribonucleic acid expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), osterix, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene-6, and ALP was analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Osteogenic differentiation of fibroblast-like cells was determined by histochemically detecting ALP production.

Results. After osteogenic induction, BMP-2 expression increased in the OPLL continuous and segmental groups.

After addition of midazolam as internal

After addition of midazolam as internal Selleck GSK1120212 standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used as sample preparation, and chromatography involved Agilent SB-C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 5.0 mu m) using 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as a mobile phase with gradient elution. Detection involved positive ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI), and selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantification of target fragment ions m/z 198 for esomeprazole and m/z 326 for midazolam (internal standard, IS). The assay was linear over the range of 10-2000 ng/mL for esomeprazole,

with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL for esomeprazole. Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14 % and the accuracies were in the range of 89.2-112.6 % for esomeprazole. This developed method was successfully applied for the determination

of esomeprazole in rabbit plasma for pharmacokinetic study.”
“Continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) is a clinically useful tool in the pediatric setting. This study compared the ability of stroke volume variation (SVV) measured by NICOM with that of respiratory variations in the velocity of aortic blood flow PF-04929113 concentration (a-(3)Vpeak) and central venous pressure (CVP) to predict of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated children after ventricular septal defect repair. The study investigated 26 mechanically

ventilated children after the completion of surgery. At 30 min after their arrival in an intensive care unit, a colloid solution of 10 ml/kg was administrated for volume expansion. Hemodynamic variables, including CVP, stroke volume, and a-(3)Vpeak in addition to cardiac output and SVV in NICOM were measured before and 10 min after volume expansion. The patients with a stroke volume increase of more than 15 % after volume expansion were defined as responders. The 26 patients in the study consisted of 13 Selleckchem Elafibranor responders and 13 nonresponders. Before volume expansion, a-(3)Vpeak and SVV were higher in the responders (both p values < 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of a-(3)Vpeak, SVV, and CVP were respectively 0.956 (95 % CI 0.885-1.00), 0.888 (95 % CI 0.764-1.00), and 0.331 (95 % CI 0.123-0.540). This study showed that SVV by NICOM and a-(3)Vpeak by echocardiography, but not CVP, reliably predicted fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation after ventricular septal defect repair in children.