L.Z.V. was recipient of a FAPESP fellowship. R.F.A. was recipient of a CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de
Pessoal de Nível Superior) fellowship. R.F. was recipient of a CNPq fellowship. J.M.B was recipient of a PIBIC-CNPq fellowship. “
“Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton is an invasive alien weed from the Asclepiadaceae family and is very commonly found in GSK458 solubility dmso the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. Hay made from C. procera has been considered a good animal food because it contains high levels of crude protein content and is highly digestible. However, lambs fed with C. procera hay present impaired weight gain ( Madruga et al., 2008). Furthermore, incidental ingestion of fresh C. procera leaves has been suggested as toxic to many ruminants by several farmers from the Brazilian semi-arid region.
These observations are supported by a few studies that have reported toxic effects promoted by C. procera latex ( Mahmoud et al., 1979b, Pahwa and Chatterjee, 1988 and Singhal and Kumar, 2009) and leaves ( Mahmoud et al., 1979a). This study aimed to describe the toxic effects of administration of C. procera leaves to sheep and buy Galunisertib C. procera latex to rats. Leaves and latex from C. procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton (Apocynaceae) were collected immediately before use. Only mature leaves without any sign of lesion were used. Latex was collected by breakage of the stem and direct put in a glass vial without solvent. The experiments and plant collection were performed near Mossoró city, RN, northeastern Brazil (5°11′15″S and 37°20′39″W) at an altitude of 16 m above sea level. The climate in this region is characterized as semi-arid. The mean annual temperature in this region is 27.4 °C, Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and the mean annual rainfall and mean relative humidity are 674 mm and 68.9%, respectively. Adult male Wistar rats (weights
of about 150 g) were obtained from the Animal Sciences Department, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Commercial food rations (Labina, Purina, São Lourenço da Mata, PE, Brazil) and tap water were provided to the animals ad libitum. The animal room was maintained at 22–24 °C with a 12-h light/dark cycle. Twenty male rats were separated into five groups (four animals/group) and were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. The rats were monitored closely for 48 h. Dead rats were necropsied for pathological study. During the necropsy, fragments of the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs and spleen were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Intact male sheep, weighing 12–19 kg, were exposed to C. procera leaves by gavage.