L Z V was recipient of a FAPESP fellowship R F A was recipient

L.Z.V. was recipient of a FAPESP fellowship. R.F.A. was recipient of a CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de

Pessoal de Nível Superior) fellowship. R.F. was recipient of a CNPq fellowship. J.M.B was recipient of a PIBIC-CNPq fellowship. “
“Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton is an invasive alien weed from the Asclepiadaceae family and is very commonly found in GSK458 solubility dmso the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. Hay made from C. procera has been considered a good animal food because it contains high levels of crude protein content and is highly digestible. However, lambs fed with C. procera hay present impaired weight gain ( Madruga et al., 2008). Furthermore, incidental ingestion of fresh C. procera leaves has been suggested as toxic to many ruminants by several farmers from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

These observations are supported by a few studies that have reported toxic effects promoted by C. procera latex ( Mahmoud et al., 1979b, Pahwa and Chatterjee, 1988 and Singhal and Kumar, 2009) and leaves ( Mahmoud et al., 1979a). This study aimed to describe the toxic effects of administration of C. procera leaves to sheep and buy Galunisertib C. procera latex to rats. Leaves and latex from C. procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton (Apocynaceae) were collected immediately before use. Only mature leaves without any sign of lesion were used. Latex was collected by breakage of the stem and direct put in a glass vial without solvent. The experiments and plant collection were performed near Mossoró city, RN, northeastern Brazil (5°11′15″S and 37°20′39″W) at an altitude of 16 m above sea level. The climate in this region is characterized as semi-arid. The mean annual temperature in this region is 27.4 °C, Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and the mean annual rainfall and mean relative humidity are 674 mm and 68.9%, respectively. Adult male Wistar rats (weights

of about 150 g) were obtained from the Animal Sciences Department, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Commercial food rations (Labina, Purina, São Lourenço da Mata, PE, Brazil) and tap water were provided to the animals ad libitum. The animal room was maintained at 22–24 °C with a 12-h light/dark cycle. Twenty male rats were separated into five groups (four animals/group) and were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. The rats were monitored closely for 48 h. Dead rats were necropsied for pathological study. During the necropsy, fragments of the heart, liver, kidneys, lungs and spleen were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The paraffin-embedded sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Intact male sheep, weighing 12–19 kg, were exposed to C. procera leaves by gavage.

Only 26 of these numerous wetlands have been designated as Ramsar

Only 26 of these numerous wetlands have been designated as Ramsar Sites (Ramsar, 2013). However, many other wetlands which perform potentially valuable functions are continued to be ignored in the policy process. As a result many freshwater wetlands ecosystems are threatened and many are already degraded and lost due to urbanization, population growth, and increased economic activities (Central Pollution Control Board, 2008). The negative

economic, social, and environmental consequences of declining water quality in wetlands are also an issue of concern for India. The problem of deteriorating water GSK1120212 solubility dmso quality is particularly more alarming in the case of small water bodies such as lakes, tanks and ponds. In the past, these water sources performed several economic (fisheries, livestock and forestry), social (water supply), and ecological functions (groundwater recharge, nutrient recycling, and biodiversity maintenance). Despite all these benefits, many decision-makers and even many of the ‘primary stakeholders’ think of them as ‘wastelands’. Every one claims a stake in them, as they are in the open access regime, but rarely are willing to pay for this extractive use (Verma, 2001). These freshwater R428 clinical trial bodies are often subject to changes in land use in their catchments leading Baricitinib to reduction in inflows

and deteriorating quality of the “runoff” traversing through agricultural fields and urban areas. On the other hand, many of them act as the “sink” for untreated effluents from urban centres and industries. Encroachment of reservoir area for urban development, excessive diversion of water for agriculture is yet another major problem (Verma, 2001). Lack of conformity among government policies in the areas of economics, environment, nature conservation, development planning is one reason for the deterioration of these water bodies (Turner et al., 2000). Lack of good governance and management

are also major reasons (Kumar et al., 2013a). Given this background, the objective of this paper is to review the status of wetlands in India, in terms of their geographic distribution and areal extent; the ecosystem goods and services they provide; various stresses they are being subject to; and the various legal and policy approaches adopted in India for their conservation and management. India, with its varying topography and climatic regimes, supports diverse and unique wetland habitats (Prasad et al., 2002). The available estimates about the areal extent of wetlands in India vary widely from a lowest of 1% to a highest of 5% of geographical area, but do support nearly fifth of the known biodiversity (Space Applications Centre, 2011).

, 1987 and Trkola et al , 2004) In addition, the microarray migh

, 1987 and Trkola et al., 2004). In addition, the microarray might be useful to assess vaccine-induced seroreactivity in the context of HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials. As more HIV-1 vaccine candidates progress into clinical trials, it is important to develop new tools to assess the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific antibodies. Here we report the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray based on a library UK-371804 cell line of 6564 peptides covering the majority of sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV-1 sequence database. This microarray provides a method to measure the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 peptides, allowing

for a more in depth analysis of antibody epitope diversity than is currently available. Such knowledge may contribute to improvements in HIV-1 vaccine design and development, or to a better understanding of immune responses to HIV-1 infection. The major limitations are that this assay does not measure conformational antibodies or antibody function. Nevertheless, when used in conjunction with other antibody assays, the microarray assays should prove useful for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research. This research was supported selleck compound by the National Institutes of Health (AI060354 to K.E.S.; AI078526, AI084794, AI095985, and AI096040 to D.H.B.), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP 1033091, OPP1040741 to D.H.B.), and the Ragon

Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard (to K.E.S. and D.H.B.). Histamine H2 receptor Plasma and serum samples from human subjects were obtained from studies conducted by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and the NIH Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development Program. We thank E. Rosenberg, L. Baden, M. Seaman, C. Bricault,

J. Iampietro, H. Li, and Z. Kang for providing generous advice, assistance, and reagents. “
“Mechanistic investigations into cell motility rely heavily on live-cell imaging and the subsequent analysis of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) data. A fundamental task herein is to perform automated tracking of cells. A variety of approaches have been developed for automated tracking of cells and also been made available to the research community as software packages or tools (Carpenter et al., 2006, de Chaumont et al., 2012, Meijering et al., 2012, Meijering et al., 2009, Padfield et al., 2011, Schindelin et al., 2012 and Zimmer et al., 2006). In a common framework referred to as ‘tracking by detection’, cell detection is performed in each frame independently, and the detection results are joined together between frames via cell tracking algorithms. A popular basis for tracking known as the ‘nearest neighbor’ associates a detected cell in a given frame with the nearest detected cell in an adjacent frame. Recently, model-based methods have been developed for cell tracking (Dufour et al., 2011, Maska et al., 2014 and Padfield et al., 2011).

81 ± 18 67 to 256 13 ± 48 57) % Analyzing these values, we can c

81 ± 18.67 to 256.13 ± 48.57) %. Analyzing these values, we can conclude that the introduction of essential oil reduced the intermolecular interaction between polymeric chains, resulting in materials with lower tensile strength. Concerning barrier properties, a rise of

contents of glycerol, emulsifier and cinnamon essential oil caused an increase in both permeabilities. Water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability coefficient (P′O2) of films with cinnamon essential oil incorporated varied from (9.78 ± 1.40 to 14.79 ± 2.76) g mm m−2 d−1 kPa−1 and from (27.50 ± 0.60 to 143.47 ± 8.30) × 109 cm3 m−1 d−1 Pa−1 , respectively. In previous work, Souza et al. (2012) tested films based on cassava this website starch reinforced with 1.0 g/100 g of clay, at the same conditions of this work, and found that the increase of glycerol content from (0.75–1.25) g/100 g also decreased barrier properties: WVP from (3.81 ± 0.58 to 5.38 ± 0.80) g mm m−2 d−1 kPa−1 and P′O2 from (22.51 ± 0.79 to 94.00 ± 3.90) × 109 cm3 m−1 d−1 Pa−1). Considering these selleck chemicals results, the increase of the glycerol content in cassava starch films elaborated in this work can also contributed with the decrease of the studied barrier properties. Glycerol is a relatively small hydrophilic molecule, which

can be entrapped between adjacent polymeric chains, decreasing intermolecular attractions and increasing molecular mobility, facilitating migration of water vapor molecules (Rodríguez, Osés, Ziani, & Maté, 2006). However, in this work, when comparing films elaborated according formulation A with the control ones, both with the same glycerol content, it can be verified that the WVP increased significantly from (3.81 ± 0.58 to 9.78 ± 1.40) g mm m−2 d1 kPa−1. It is known that the addition of a lipidic component in the formulation could act as a barrier in the films. Therefore, it is expected that cinnamon essential oil was not the responsible agent for the elevation of permeabilities Aspartate values. Based on previous observations, the

emulsifier, as a hydrophilic agent, probably it is the most component responsible for the WVP increasing. However, it should be pointed that its presence in the film elaboration process is necessary, because it promotes the incorporation of the antimicrobial agent into the aqueous solution, resulting in a homogeneous polymer matrix. Cinnamon and clove essential oils proved to be effective against two microorganisms commonly found in bread. Minimum inhibitory concentration of them, which provided 100% of inhibition against P. commune and E. amstelodami, were established, respectively, with 2.0 g/100 g of cinnamon essential oil and 16.0 g/100 g of clove essential oil. According to antimicrobial activity results, cinnamon essential oil was successfully incorporated into cassava starch films, yielding films with potential antimicrobial activity against the fungi selected. A better inhibition was observed with higher content of cinnamon essential oil.

Centres contributing data: Clinical Microbiology and Public Healt

Centres contributing data: Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge (Jane Greatorex); HIV/GUM Research Laboratory, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (Adrian Wildfire); Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London (Siobhan O’Shea, Jane Mullen); HPA – Public Health

Laboratory, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Baf-A1 mw Birmingham (Erasmus Smit); HPA London (Tamyo Mbisa); Imperial College Health NHS Trust, London (Alison Cox); King’s College Hospital, London (Richard Tandy); Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (Tony Hale, Tracy Fawcett); Specialist Virology Centre, Liverpool (Mark Hopkins, Lynn Ashton); Department of Clinical Virology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (Peter Tilston); Department of Virology, Royal Free Hospital, London (Clare Booth, Ana Garcia-Diaz); Edinburgh Specialist Virology Centre, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Jill Shepherd); Department of Infection & Tropical Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle (Matthias L Schmid, Brendan

Payne); South Tees Hospitals NHS Trust, Middlesbrough (David Chadwick); St George’s Hospital, London (Phillip Hay, Phillip Rice, Mary Paynter); Department of Virology, St Bartholomew’s and The London NHS Trust (Duncan Clark, David Bibby); Molecular GSK1120212 Diagnostic Unit, Imperial College, London (Steve Kaye); University College London Hospitals (Stuart Kirk); West of Scotland Specialist Virology Lab Gartnavel, Glasgow (Alasdair MacLean, Celia Aitken, Rory Gunson). Dr Bulteel reports receiving travel, accommodation and meeting expenses from Gilead Sciences. Professor Sabin reports lecture fees and payment for development of educational presentations from Gilead Sciences and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Nelson reports receiving consultancy fees, grant support, lecture fees, payment for development of educational presentations and travel, accommodation IMP dehydrogenase and meeting expenses from Gilead

Sciences. “
“The authors regret that Sharon Sheehan (King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust) was erroneously omitted from the acknowledgements section of this paper. Sharon was involved in the collection of clinical data as part of the United Kingdom Clinical Infection Research Group (UKCIRG). The authors would like to apologise for this error. “
“Author Philip Bejon has noted that the information regarding the title of his funders for the above paper was incorrect. The acknowledgement should read “P. Bejon is supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre Oxford”. “
“It is estimated that 35.3 million people are living with HIV worldwide, with 25 million living in sub-saharan Africa.1 3.3 million children are living with HIV, of whom 260,000 were new infections in 2012.


to recommendations in Frankowski et al (2009),


to recommendations in Frankowski et al. (2009), the ultimate interpretation of seismo-acoustic data, leading to their conversion into geological cross-sections, should be preceded by drillings and analysis of the drill core samples, as well as verification of the findings of geophysical surveys other learn more than acoustic measurements. During the interpretation and processing of the seismo- acoustic data, geological-engineering cross-sections are drawn showing the boundaries between the sediments and the thicknesses of the individual layers. Devices used in seismo-acoustic surveys, known as sub-bottom profiling devices, are constructed in the same way as bathymetric echo-sounders, but they work at lower frequencies, most often not higher than a dozen or so kHz. They also have a higher emitted signal energy in comparison to hydrographic and navigable echo sounders. Geophysical vessels have their seismo-acoustic equipment incorporated permanently in the hull. Smaller craft use towed or side-mounted submerged Epigenetics inhibitor devices. Because these consume a relatively large amount of power, the supply to the sub-bottom

profilers requires 230 V wiring, which is available on bigger vessels only. The StrataBox, produced by SyQwest Inc. (USA), is one of the few devices powered by 10–30 V DC. Having been purchased recently by the Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IBW PAN), this equipment works with an acoustic frequency of 10 kHz and ensures penetration down to 40 m below the bottom for a sea bed built of cohesive deposits. For sandy sediments, the penetration range is no more than a few metres, but the transducer is light enough for it to be mounted on the side of a small boat. The power supply is 12 V or 24 V (DC). According to the specification sheet, the StrataBox can operate at maximum depth of 150 m; the minimum depth depends on the type of sediment on the sea bed surface. In addition, the user manual recommends Metformin that the distance between the transducer (its lower submerged surface) and the sea

bottom should not exceed 2.5 m. The surveys described in the present study have proved this minimum distance to be slightly smaller, namely 1.8–2.0 m. Measurements carried out in May 2009 near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station (CRS) at Lubiatowo focused on surveying the structure of the non-cohesive sea bottom. It was known from analysis of surficial sea bed samples taken previously at Lubiatowo that the sea bottom consists mostly of fine sand with a median grain diameter of d50 = 0.20–0.25 mm; locally it is coarser – d50 ≈ 0.4 mm. The objective of the seismo-acoustic survey using the StrataBox was to determine the thickness and offshore range of the dynamic layer as conventionally defined ( Boldyrev 1991, Subotowicz 1996).

In this model, reproductive investment is measured by the gonado-

In this model, reproductive investment is measured by the gonado-somatic index G, defined as the ratio between an individual’s gonadic and somatic mass. A conversion factor γ accounts for the higher energy content of gonadic tissue relative to somatic tissue [38] and [39]. Consequently, the length of a mature individual is given by equation(3) ltM=3(lt−1M+gD,t−1)/(3+γG) An individual’s fecundity f depends on its body length l, equation(4) f=kjlGD,f=kljGD,where D is the weight-specific packing density

of oocytes [40], and k and j are allometric constants relating body length to somatic body mass. Sex is assigned randomly at birth based on a 1:1 primary sex ratio. The density-dependent newborn mortality is determined by an estimated Beverton–Holt stock–recruitment relationship for 3-year-olds [32], depending on SSB and climate. The climatic variable, the sea-surface buy INK 128 temperature from the Kola meridian transect (33°50′ E, 70°50′ N to 72°50′ N) has been shown to be an important selleck screening library factor for recruitment [41], [42], [43] and [44]. This annual climatic data is used as input to the modelled stock–recruitment relationship (prior to 1990, the mean value from 1980–1989, while from 2004 onwards, the mean value from 1990–2007). Back-calculating from the predicted number of 3-year-olds, the number of 1-year-olds

is determined by setting instantaneous natural mortality rate to 0.2 yr−1, as conventionally done for that stock [11]. Individuals die from natural mortality or fishing mortality. Natural mortality is parsimoniously held constant and set equal to an instantaneous rate of 0.2 yr−1, as routinely assumed

in the stock assessment of NEA cod [11]. In terms of fishing mortality, immature fish can only get captured on the feeding grounds, while mature fish may also experience fishing mortality on the spawning grounds (Fig. 2a). Fishing mortality rates F   from the stock-assessment model [3] are translated into harvest probabilities 1−exp(−ηF)1−exp(−ηF) in the feeding grounds and 1−exp(−κF)1−exp(−κF) in the spawning grounds, where the parameters η and κ convert the total fishing mortality rate into those in the feeding grounds and spawning grounds, respectively. Also taken into account is that only mature fish migrate out of the Barents Sea for about ¼ of the year, and therefore reduced their harvest probabilities thereto. A selectivity cAMP curve accounting for the lower catchability of smaller-sized fish, estimated for the commercial trawling gear used in the NEA cod fishery [45] was also implemented. Initially, fishing mortality is held constant in the model at the 1932–1989 average, in order to allow the population to reach demographic equilibrium (in terms of stable total biomass, SSB, individual growth, and age and length at maturation). After that equilibration, the stock’s observed annual fishing mortality rates for each year between 1990 and 2003 were implemented, resulting in very good matches between model-predicted and observed SSB values.

2 and TaHsp90 3 were positive contributors in the wheat hypersens

2 and TaHsp90.3 were positive contributors in the wheat hypersensitive reaction to stripe rust fungus [50] and [51]. These studies suggested that VIGS is an effective reverse genetic tool for investigating the functions of genes in wheat by knocking down the transcripts of target genes during the development

of disease resistance. Conventional methods for gene BIBF-1120 functional analysis of plant genes, including transformation are not easily accomplished given wheat’s large genome [52]. Transformation is also time-consuming because the function of a target gene should be tested over multiple generations [53]. In contrast to the conventional methods, the main advantage of VIGS is the generation of a rapid phenotype without the need for plant transformation [54]. Moreover, the VIGS method provides a large-scale screening of genes for functional analysis; only a single plant is enough to follow phenotype with targeted silencing [55]. In this study, the VIGS approach was utilized to investigate the function of TaWAK5 in wheat defense response to R. cerealis. Although the TaWAK5 transcript level was reduced in CI12633 plants infected by BSMV:TaWAK5, down-regulation of TaWAK5 in resistant CI12633 did not result in an obvious impairment of wheat resistance to R. cerealis. Plant defense is a complicated network in which some components Z-VAD-FMK clinical trial and network sectors interact with each other

in complex ways. The function of an individual component of a network can be compensated for by some other component. Therefore, functional characterization of disease resistance components by knockout of an individual component is difficult and multi-gene

knock outs or gene × gene interactions need to be considered [56]. In Arabidopsis, it has been suggested that there is functional redundancy Rucaparib mw between the WAKs, as induced silencing of individual AtWAK1or AtWAK2 using gene-specific antisense transcripts did not cause any phenotypic alteration [57]. In this study, knocking down TaWAK5 expression did not cause the compromised resistance phenotype of the host CI12633 to R. cerealis. The reason might be that TaWAK5 is not the major gene controlling wheat defense response to R. cerealis, or that TaWAK5 is functionally redundant with other wheat WAK genes that help replace its functionalities when it is knocked out by VIGS experiments. A wheat WAK gene, TaWAK5, was identified by microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes between R. cerealis-resistant line CI12633 and susceptible cv. Wenmai 6 and characterized. TaWAK5 was rapidly induced by R. cerealis infection, and by exogenous SA, MeJA, or ABA application. The deduced TaWAK5 protein shares the structural characteristic of a wall-associated kinase, possessing two EGF-like repeats and a kinase catalytic domain. The TaWAK5 protein was localized to the plasma membranes in onion epidermal cells.

Samples were incubated

Samples were incubated Target Selective Inhibitor Library manufacturer at 42 °C for 50 min, and the reaction was stopped by heating the samples at 70 °C for 15 min. Samples were cooled at 4 °C for 10 min. Diluted samples from the reverse transcriptase reaction (1:10) underwent real-time PCR amplification using Platinum SYBR QPCR Supermix-UDG and specific primers for AT1R (forward, CACTTTCCTGGATGTGCTGA; reverse, CCCAGAAAGCCGTAGAACAG;

141 bp) and AT2R (forward, CTGCTGGGATTGCCTTAATGA; reverse, AGCAGATGTTTTCTGATTCCAAAGT; 94 bp). Gene expression of GAPDH mRNA was used for normalization (forward, GGTGCTGAGTATGTCGTGGA; reverse, ACTGTGGTCATGAGCCCTTC; 262 bp). Real-time PCRs were performed, recorded, and analyzed using the Corbett Research system (Corbett Life Sciences, Australia). The conditions PLX-4720 cell line for PCR were as follows: 95 °C for 2 min, then 40 cycles of 95 °C for 15 s, 60 °C for 1 min, and 72 °C for 15 s. The specificity of the SYBR Green assay was confirmed by melting point analysis. Expression data were calculated from the cycle threshold (Ct) value using the ΔCt method for quantification [22]. Results were expressed as fold increases. All of the reagents utilized in this method were purchased from Invitrogen (USA). Immunohistochemical assay for detection of angiotensin receptors in portal vein was realized according with the method previously described

[4]. The portal vein was fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA) solution for 6 h and immersed in sucrose solution (30%) for 12 h. After that, portal vein was embedded in medium for cryosectioning, cut into 8 μm thick sections with

a Leica CM 1850 cryostat (Leica Instruments, Germany), and placed on slides. The vessels were incubated with rabbit anti-goat AT1R or AT2R antibody (IgG; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) at 1:25 and 1:10 dilutions, respectively, at 4 °C for 18 h. Slides were washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and incubated with Immune system biotin-conjugated secondary antibody (diluted 1:1000; Vector Laboratory, USA) at room temperature for 2 h. After incubation, slides were washed with PBS and incubated with the ABC Vectastain kit (Vector Laboratory, USA) at room temperature for 2 h. The signal was revealed by incubating the slides with 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) (Sigma–Aldrich, USA) and 0.06% H2O2 for 30 and 60 s for the AT1R and AT2R antibodies, respectively. The semi-quantitative analysis of staining to AT1R and AT2R antibodies was determined at least in five portal vein slides from each animal and protein expression levels were expressed as arbitrary units determined by optic densitometry with the KS-300 image program (Carl-Zeiss, Germany). Ang II was from Bachem-CA; HOE 140, PD 123319, L-NAME, and indomethacin were from Sigma–Aldrich; losartan was from Merck Sharp & Döhme and celecoxib was from Pfizer.

DSC results are presented in Table 4 and Fig  1 and Fig  2 All t

DSC results are presented in Table 4 and Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. All the flour samples exhibited at least two endothermic peaks at different temperatures, with the exception of severe extrusion flour. They are referred to hereafter

as transitions 1, 2 and 3 (Tp1, Tp2, Tp3). The first Tp for whole and defatted native amaranth flour were similar (76 °C) and coincided with the paste temperature obtained by RVA. Some authors (Baker & Rayas-Duarte, 1998) have reported that the gelatinization temperature of amaranth starch was higher than wheat or rice starches. They have suggested there are more organized regions in amaranth as higher temperatures were needed to record a melting transition. learn more These Tp and their respective δH could indicate starch gelatinization whereas the other small peaks could be attributable

to protein denaturation. In fact, Baker and Rayas-Duarte (1998) reported a Tp for amaranth starch of around 70 °C and Kong et al. (2009) observed Tp for fifteen PR-171 cell line cultivars of amaranth which ranged from 68 °C to 78 °C. Martínez and Añón (1996) reported different temperatures for amaranth protein denaturation. Albumin and glutelin presented Tp of 64 °C and 70 °C, respectively, which indicate lower thermal stability. It was also observed a higher Tp (in excess of 90 °C), corresponding to globulin, albumin-2 and glutelin subfraction that are more thermostable. However, it is worth noting that these comparisons to the present work are not straightforward because in this case all amaranth fractions must be considered and also distinct water:starch proportions were used. Initially, it was thought that the small endothermic peak observed for whole native flour could be attributed to an amylose–lipid complex. However, this peak still occurred after defatting at the same temperature (defatted native flour),

indicating that it was not related to the lipid content of Cobimetinib clinical trial the flour. In addition, lipid–amylose complexes start to melt only at temperatures approaching 110 °C (Doublier, Paton, & Llamas, 1987) and the waxy characteristic of amaranth flour starch did not confirm this hypothesis, again suggesting denaturation of thermostable protein, as outlined earlier. It is noteworthy that Okechukwu and Rao (1997) also reported two DSC peaks in a study with cowpea protein plus starch (cowpea and corn) gels, the first peak being due to starch gelatinization and second to protein denaturation. The absence of an endothermic peak at around 70 °C for extruded flours could indicate total degradation of starch that occurred prior to the extrusion process. Indeed, these results agree with those discussed previously in that the extruded flours also showed a very small peak and low final viscosity compared to native flours. González, Carrarra et al. (2007) reported similar values of enthalpy for an extruded amaranth starch-rich fraction to those observed in this study.