Particularly, these should target unemployed and economically ina

Particularly, these should target unemployed and economically inactive men and women in Australia, who may be at higher risk of suicide than previously thought.”
“In the West, the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased in the past 50 years, up to 8-14/100,000 and 120-200/100,000 persons, respectively, for ulcerative colitis (UC) and 6-15/100,000 and 50-200/100,000 persons, respectively, Silmitasertib mouse for Crohn’s disease (CD). Studies of migrant populations and populations of developing countries demonstrated a recent,

slow increase in the incidence of UC, whereas that of CD remained low, but CD incidence eventually increased to the level of UC. CD and UC are incurable; they begin in young adulthood and continue

throughout life. The anatomic evolution of CD has been determined from studies of postoperative recurrence; CD begins with aphtous ulcers that develop into strictures or fistulas. Lesions usually arise in a single digestive Natural Product Library segment; this site tends to be stable over time. Strictures and fistulas are more frequent in patients with ileal disease, whereas Crohn’s colitis remains uncomplicated for many years. Among patients with CD, intestinal surgery is required for as many as 80% and a permanent stoma required in more than 10%. In patients with UC, the lesions usually remain superficial and extend proximally; colectomy is required for 10%-30% of patients. Prognosis is difficult to determine. The mortality of patients with UC is not greater than that of the population, but patients

with CD have greater mortality than the population. It has been proposed that only aggressive therapeutic approaches, based on treatment of early recurrent lesions in asymptomatic individuals, have a significant impact on progression of these chronic diseases.”
“Allogeneic platelet transfusions protect patients from bleeding episodes and also make aggressive medical procedures such as those involving marrow transplants requiring chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy possible. These patients are dependent upon an unfailing supply of platelets that can sometimes be in short supply due to high demands coupled with an extremely short expiration date for platelet products of only 5 days. One approach that is under investigation to overcome platelet shortages is to harness the extraordinary capabilities of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate into various cell types and to use this ability to specifically produce clinical scale quantities of functional platelets in bioreactors. To accomplish such an enormous and complex task requires an appreciation of the regulatory mechanisms that occur during the development of megakaryocytes (MKs) and the subsequent biogenesis of functional platelets from mature MKs.

Specifically, inadvertent DNA contamination or sample mixing woul

Specifically, inadvertent DNA contamination or sample mixing would yield mosaic variation that could be erroneously interpreted as real mutation differences (instabilities) between tissues from the same individual. From the very beginning,

mtDNA studies comparing cancerous to non-cancerous tissues have suffered from such mosaic results. We demonstrate here that the phylogenetic linkage of whole arrays of mtDNA selleck products mutations provides strong evidence of artificial recombination in previous studies on buccal cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma.”
“Objective-To develop an in vitro model of cartilage injury in full-thickness equine cartilage specimens that can be used to simulate in vivo disease and evaluate treatment efficacy.\n\nSample-15 full-thickness cartilage explants from the trochlear ridges of the distal aspect of the femur from each of 6 adult horses that had died from reasons unrelated to the musculoskeletal

system.\n\nProcedures-To simulate injury, cartilage explants were subjected to single-impact uniaxial compression to 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80% strain at a rate of 100% strain/s. Other explants were left uninjured (control specimens). All specimens underwent a culture process for 28 days and were subsequently evaluated histologically for characteristics of injury selleck inhibitor and early stages of osteoarthritis, including articular surface damage, chondrocyte cell death, focal cell loss, see more chondrocyte cluster formation, and loss of the extracellular matrix molecules aggrecan and types I and II collagen.\n\nResults-Compression to all degrees of strain induced some amount of pathological change typical of clinical osteoarthritis in horses; however, only compression to 60% strain induced significant changes

morphologically and biochemically in the extracellular matrix.\n\nConclusions and Clinical Relevance-The threshold strain necessary to model injury in full-thickness cartilage specimens from the trochlear ridges of the distal femur of adult horses was 60% strain at a rate of 100% strain/s. This in vitro model should facilitate study of pathophysiologic changes and therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2013;74:40-47)”
“Clevudine has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in South Korea. However, its long-term antiviral effect and safety awaits more study. The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral efficacy, predictors of virologic response, and development of myopathy after clevudine therapy for CHB. The study included 102 nucleoside naive CHB patients who had received clevudine for more than 6 months with good compliance. The median duration of clevudine treatment was 53 weeks (range, 25-90 weeks). A retrospective analysis of data retrieved from medical records was performed.

Conclusions The use of PEO for CAS is safe and effective in a

\n\nConclusions The use of PEO for CAS is safe and effective in an unselected patient population. Anatomical and/or clinical conditions of high surgical risk were not associated with an increased rate of adverse events. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1661-7) (C) 2010 by the American College of Epigenetics inhibitor Cardiology Foundation”
“Discussion about end-of-life healthcare choices can contribute to honoring preferences and facilitating a peaceful dying process for residents

in assisted living facilities. Focus groups were used to explore perspectives on end-of-life discussion with residents, family members, and staff members in three assisted living facilities. Residents were most concerned about practical matters such as decisions about inheritance, financialmatters, and funerals. They expressed that they were ready to accept death but felt that their family members were resistant to discussion. Family members were most concerned about good care for their elderly relative. Staff members expressed confidence in providing end-of-life care and supporting families but less confidence in initiating discussion about end-of-life decisions. Residents reported that physicians most often focused on illness progression and treatment. Residents and family members may be at different stages in accepting the dying process. To ensure that residents’ choices for end-of-life care Luminespib clinical trial are honored, the perspectives of all involved,

including family and staff members as well as organizational practices, must be considered in the development of strategies and resources for promoting discussion about end-of-life healthcare choices for residents in assisted

living facilities.”
“(Characterization of the phytobenthic assemblage at Kutuca beach, Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). Due to potential environmental problems in Sepetiba Bay, it is necessary to identify sites for environmental monitoring. Kutuca Beach was chosen for this purpose since Community structure data from collections in 1999 detected high diversity. Over a period of 2 months, 63 taxa were collected (Chlorophyta, 22%; Ochrophyta, 16%; Rhodophyta, 62%). The destructive sampling used six random plots (25×25 cm) in each of two 20-meter long RSL3 supplier lines horizontal to the rocky shore. When the 1999 results were compared with these, it was observed that biomass went from 490.9 +/- 201.2 g.m(-2) to 199.57 +/- 29.33 g.m(-2), richness from 13.0 +/- 4.5 to 5.06 +/- 1.72, diversity H’=2.2 +/- 0.41 to H’=1.3 +/- 0.39 and equitability J’=0.65 +/- 0.06 to J’=0.55 +/- 0.17. Four taxa (Sargassum spp., Caulerpa sertularioides (S.G. Gmel.) M. Howe, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacquin) J.V. Lamour. and Gracilaria cervicornis (Turner) J. Agardh) contributed 15% to 33% of the biomass, while in 1999, eight taxa (Caulerpa sertularioides, Dictyopteris delicatula J.V. Lamour., Gracilaria cervicornis, Sargassum pp., Codium taylorii P.C.

Results: Compared to infants of mothers from the general populati

Results: Compared to infants of mothers from the general population (55.5%), infants of Chinese mothers had a lower risk of an adverse outcome at delivery (42.9%, adjusted odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.68), whereas infants of South Asian mothers had a higher risk (58.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.23). Chinese women also had a lower risk of adverse maternal outcomes (32.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.63) compared to general population women (41.2%), whereas the risk for South Asian women was not different (39.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence

interval 0.88-1.02) from that of general population women. Conclusions: The risk of complications of gestational diabetes differs Pfizer Licensed Compound Library chemical structure significantly between Chinese and South Asian patients and the general population in Ontario. Tailored interventions for gestational diabetes management may be required to improve pregnancy outcomes in high-risk

ethnic groups.”
“Cerebral infarction after a viper bite is relatively uncommon. A combination of factors has been implicated in the pathophysiology VX-770 research buy of infarct following snakebite. In this case report, the clinical outcome after a posterior circulation infarct and various possibilities that could lead to such a catastrophic event are discussed. The present study stresses the need to keep hydration, blood pressure and central venous

pressure optimal in all snakebite patients. Cerebral infarction should be considered a differential diagnosis, in any patient with neurological deterioration following snakebite. Prognosis of such patients with find more posterior circulation stroke remains poor and decompressive craniectomy has not been found to be helpful.”
“This study determined whether performance patterns on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) could differentiate participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) showing adequate effort from those with mild TBI exhibiting poor effort using a case-control design. The TBI group consisted of 124 persons with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The poor effort group consisted of 77 persons with mild head injury who were involved in litigation (LG) and failed at least one stand-alone symptom validity measure (SVT) and also either a second SVT or an effort indicator embedded within a standard clinical test. A total of 18 CVLT-II variables were investigated using Bayesian model averaging (BMA) for logistic regression to determine which variables best differentiated the groups. The CVLT-II variables having the most support were Long-Delay Free Recall, Total Recognition Discriminability (d’), and Total Recall Discriminability.”
“Somatosensory-evoked spikes (ESp) are high-voltage potentials registered on the EEG, which accompany each of the percussions on the feet or hands.

This early postnatal leptin peak is necessary for the development

This early postnatal leptin peak is necessary for the development of hypothalamic circuits, which program appetite in later life. This study evaluated the multigenerational impact of OB on insulin:

glucose dynamics of mature female F1 offspring fed only to requirements throughout gestation and on their lambs (F2 generation). DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult F1 female offspring born to OB (n = 10) or CON (n = 7) ewes were utilized. All F1 ewes were subjected to a glucose tolerance test at midgestation and late gestation. Jugular blood was obtained from F2 lambs at birth (day 1) through postnatal day 11, and plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol and leptin concentrations were determined. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was utilized to determine bone mineral density, bone mineral content, lean tissue mass and fat tissue mass. RESULTS: Fasted blood glucose and insulin β-Nicotinamide Others inhibitor concentrations were greater (P smaller than 0.05) in OBF1 than CONF1 ewes at midgestation and late gestation. Further, after glucose infusion, both glucose and insulin

concentrations remained higher in OBF1 Nutlin-3a nmr ewes (P smaller than 0.05) than CONF1 ewes, demonstrating greater insulin resistance. Blood concentrations of glucose, insulin and cortisol and adiposity were higher (P smaller than 0.01) in OBF2 lambs than CONF2 lambs at birth. Importantly, OBF2 lambs failed to exhibit the early postnatal leptin peak exhibited by CONF2 lambs. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that these OBF2 lambs are predisposed to exhibit the same metabolic alterations as their mothers, suggesting a multigenerational programming effect.”
“Background: Essential tremor (ET) is characterised by postural and action tremors with a frequency of 4-12 Hz. Previous studies suggest that the tremor activity originates in the cerebello-thalamocortical

pathways. Alprazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that attenuates tremors in ET. The mechanisms that mediate the therapeutic action of alprazolam are unknown; however, in healthy subjects, benzodiazepines increase cortical beta activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of alprazolam both on beta and tremor-related cortical activity and on alterations in tremor presentation in ET patients. Therefore, we characterised the dynamics Ion Channel Ligand Library screening of tremor and cortical activity in ET patients after alprazolam intake.\n\nMethods: We recorded hand tremors and contralateral cortical activity in four recordings before and after a single dose of alprazolam. We then computed the changes in tremors, cortico-muscular coherence, and cortical activity at the tremor frequency and in the beta band.\n\nResults: Alprazolam significantly attenuated tremors (EMG: 76.2 +/- 22.68%), decreased cortical activity in the tremor frequency range and increased cortical beta activity in all patients (P<0.05).

Neither endoscopist had formal training in

Neither endoscopist had formal training in OICR-9429 pediatric ERCP prior to 2003. Outcome measures included the procedure indications, cannulation success rates, procedure success rates, type of anesthesia, therapeutic interventions, frequency and type of procedure related complications,

and technical complexity.\n\nForty-five patients were included with a mean age of 12 years (range 6-17). There were a total of 70 ERCP procedures. Choledocholithiasis was the most common indication. Modes of anesthesia included monitored anesthesia care (31, 44.3 %), general anesthesia (22, 31.4 %) and moderate conscious sedation (17, 24.3 %). The papilla cannulation success rate was 98.6 % (69/70). Therapeutic maneuvers included 31 biliary sphincterotomies, ten pancreatic sphincterotomies, 17 pancreatic duct stents, 16 bile duct stents, two cystgastrostomy stents, four biliary stricture dilations, one minor papillotomy site dilation, one mechanical lithotripsy and one ampullectomy. The procedural success rate was 97.1 % (68/70). The overall

complication rate was 7.1 % (5/70) with a post-ERCP pancreatitis rate of 4.3 % (3/70). Complications included infection (moderate-1), bleeding (moderate-1), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (mild-1, moderate-2).\n\nERCP procedures in pediatric patients can be safely and efficaciously performed by adult gastroenterologists trained in advanced endoscopy.”
“The aim of the study was to determine whether the reduction in brain grey matter volume VEGFR inhibitor associated with hypertension

persisted or was remediated among hypertensive patients newly treated over the course of a year. A total of 41 hypertensive patients were assessed over the course of a 1-year successful anti-hypertensive treatment. Brain areas identified previously in cross-sectional studies differing in volume between hypertensive and normotensive individuals were examined with a semi-automated measurement GDC-0973 cell line technique (automated labelling pathway). Volumes of grey matter regions were computed at baseline after a year of treatment and compared with archival data from normotensive individuals. Reductions in regional grey matter volume over the follow-up period were observed despite successful treatment of blood pressure (BP). The comparison group of older, but normotensive, individuals showed no significant changes over a year in the regions tested in the treated hypertensive group. These novel results suggest that essential hypertension is associated with regional grey matter shrinkage, and successful reduction of BP may not completely counter that trend. Journal of Human Hypertension (2012) 26, 295-305; doi:10.1038/jhh.2011.31; published online 14 April 2011″
“We explore the properties of group-II acceptors in GaN by performing hybrid density functional calculations.

Results: Over 2003-2009 period there were 1870 children hospi

\n\nResults: Over 2003-2009 period there were 1870 children hospitalized due to pneumonia, of which in 332 (17.8%) the Mycoplasma pneumoniae and/or Chlamydophila pneumoniae etiology was confirmed. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and mixed infection was diagnosed in 198 (10.6%), 102 (5.5%), and 32 (1.7%) children,

respectively. The dominant clinical feature in both groups was cough, observed in 186 (93.9%) and 88 (86.3%) children, respectively. Further, reddening of the throat, rhinitis, shortness of breath, fever, enlarged lymph selleck chemical nodes, skin lesions and dyspepsia were also observed. The frequency of specific clinical features in both groups was similar. Statistical relationship (p <= 0.05) was observed only in case of skin lesions. In chest x-ray there was no statistical link as for analyzed changes. Interstitial inflammatory changes were most frequently observed.\n\nConclusions: Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae

are significant etiological factors in pneumonia in children, and as such they should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of pneumonia in children. The clinical picture of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae is hardly specific, with basic labs and chest x-ray of little help in differentiation of infection etiology.”
“ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to elucidate the socket healing process buy JQEZ5 and biodegradation of incorporating synthetic bone fillers followed by grafting of the fresh extraction socket.\n\nMaterials and methodsThird premolars in four quadrants of eight beagle dogs were extracted and randomly Sapitinib treated with either one of hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), -tricalcium phosphate (-TCP), or no graft (C). Histologic

observations and histomorphometric analysis at three zones (apical, middle, and coronal) of the socket were performed. Socket area (S) and the proportions of newly formed bone (%NB), residual biomaterials (%RB), and fibrovascular connective tissue (%FCT) at 2, 4, and 8weeks were measured. The numbers of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (No.OC) were also determined at the three zones.\n\nResults%NB was significantly higher in control group compared with the grafted groups at all healing periods. %NB of HA and BCP increased with time, whereas %RB showed different patterns that decreased in BCP, unlike the minimal change observed in HA. %NB of -TCP showed smallest portion compared with other grafted groups at 2 and 4weeks, however, significantly increased at 8weeks. %RB of -TCP was less than HA and BCP at all healing periods. Numbers of multinucleated cells were greater in BCP and -TCP, followed by HA and smallest in control group.

High COD levels (COD >= 400 mg L(-1)) caused evident physiolog

High COD levels (COD >= 400 mg L(-1)) caused evident physiological changes click here in P australis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved”
“Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are denionstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the

tissue Source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism Occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance

of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.”
“Endometrial serous carcinomas FK228 inhibitor constitute no more than 10% of endometrial adenocarcinomas, but frequently present at an advanced stage and have a significantly worse prognosis than the more common low-grade and intermediate-grade endometrioid adenocarcinomas. The neoplasm’s potential for rapid tumor progression and the high mortality that is associated with advanced-stage disease underscore the importance of understanding endometrial serous carcinogenesis so that its precancers can be diagnosed and an effective therapeutic intervention can buy Baf-A1 be administered. In this study, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge on endometrial serous carcinogenesis and propose a model for its development based on recent work from our group and published data from other researchers. In this model, endometrial

serous carcinoma arises predominantly in the resting endometrium, manifesting first as p53 immunoreactive, morphologically normal endometrial cells (p53 signatures), evolving to endometrial glandular dysplasia (which is the first morphologically identifiable precursor lesion), then to serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (a carcinoma with a noninvasive growth pattern in the uterus but which is not infrequently associated with extrauterine disease), and finally into fully developed serous carcinoma. Endometrial glandular dysplasia is a lesion, which can be diagnosed by routine microscopic evaluation, whose ablation or removal may potentially offer the opportunity to prevent the development of the associated malignancy. The diagnostic criteria, practical applicability, and evidentiary basis for the delineation of this lesion are studied.”
“Frontonasal Dysplasia (FND) and Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) are two well-recognized clinical entities. With features of both FND and OAVS, the term oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) was coined in 1981.

Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “

Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Introduction:\n\nSubthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation has become a useful tool in effectively treating severe Parkinson’s disease.\n\nMethod:\n\nWhile most reports in literature describe the immediate and short-term post-operative brain lead implant-related adverse check details events, we present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed herpes zoster (HZ) upon the subcutaneous placement of the pulse generator two years after the procedure.\n\nConclusion:\n\nHe had excellent recovery of HZ lesions and related pain after specific antiviral therapy. The importance of a correct diagnosis of this unusual complication

is outlined in order to minimize the risk of debilitating chronic HZ-associated pain.”
“A magnetically levitated impeller within a pediatric ventricular assist device operates under highly transient flow conditions. In this study, computational

analyses were performed to investigate the hydraulic performance and fluid forces on the impeller under the steady and dynamic flow conditions, including: 1) time-varying boundary conditions (TVBC) considering a pulsed pump flow rate and pulsed left ventricular pressure; 2) transient rotational sliding interfaces Selleckchem SB203580 (TRSI) to capture virtual blade rotation. Under steady flow conditions, the pressure generation for 0.5-6 I/min over 6000-10000 rpm was 20-140 mmHg; experimental validation agreed to within 6-27%. Under transient flow selleck chemical conditions, the outflow pressure of the pump increased with higher inlet pressure during the TVBC simulation. During TVBC, the pressure rise across the pump decreased as a function of higher flow rates and increased as a function of lower flow rates. The radial fluid forces varied directly with the flow rate by demonstrating larger forces at higher flow rates. For TRSI simulations, pressure fluctuations

due the blade passage frequency were found to have 12 peaks per revolution, having magnitude ranges of 0.7 and 1.0 mmHg for 8 000 and 10 000 rpm, respectively. At 8 000 rpm, the fluid forces ranged from 1.15-1.17 N (axial) and 0.02-0.11 N (radial). Transient simulations model implant scenarios more realistically and provide critical information about the fluid conditions in the pump.”
“A taxonomic review of the Atheta Thomson subgenus Microdota Mulsant & Rey in Korea is presented. The subgenus is represented in Korea by 15 species including two new species, Atheta (Microdota) jangtaesanensis Lee & Ahn, sp. n. and A. (M.) pasniki Lee & Ahn, sp. n. Four species [A. (M.) kawachiensis Cameron, A. (M.) muris Sawada, A. (M.) spiniventris Bernhauer, and A. (M.) spinula (Sawada)] are new to the Korean Peninsula and two [A. (M.) formicetorum Bernhauer and A. (M.) subcrenulata Bernhauer] to South Korea. Two other species [A. (M.) kobensis Cameron and A. (M.) scrobicollis (Kraatz)] previously recorded in North Korea had been identified incorrectly.

The median interval from fever onset to collection of throat swab

The median interval from fever onset to collection of throat swabs was 7 days (range, 4-10 days). As compared with paired serum titres, the LAMP assay enabled quicker diagnosis of MP (median interval, 13 vs. 7 days), thereby allowing early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.”
“Purpose Prior studies report that half of patients with lung cancer do not receive guideline-concordant

care. With data from a national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) study on quality of care, we sought to determine what proportion of patients refused Akt signaling pathway or had a contraindication to recommended lung cancer therapy. Patients and Methods Through medical record abstraction, we evaluated adherence to six quality indicators

addressing lung cancer-directed therapy for patients diagnosed Lonafarnib nmr within the VHA during 2007 and calculated the proportion of patients receiving, refusing, or having contraindications to recommended treatment. Results Mean age of the predominantly male population was 67.7 years (standard deviation, 9.4 years), and 15% were black. Adherence to quality indicators ranged from 81% for adjuvant chemotherapy to 98% for curative resection; however, many patients met quality indicator criteria without actually receiving recommended therapy by having a refusal (0% to 14%) or contraindication (1% to 30%) documented. Less than 1% of patients refused

palliative chemotherapy. Black patients were more likely to refuse or bear a contraindication to surgery even when controlling for comorbidity; race was not associated with refusals or contraindications to other treatments. Conclusion Refusals and contraindications are common and may account for previously demonstrated AZD6244 low rates of recommended lung cancer therapy performance at the VHA. Racial disparities in treatment may be explained, in part, by such factors. These results sound a cautionary note for quality measurement that depends on data that do not reflect patient preference or contraindications in conditions where such considerations are important. (C) 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology”
“Currently, a central demand of coastal and marine food web researchers is the search for holistic and functional ecosystem health indicators. Based on concepts directly derived from R. L. Lindeman’s work (Lindeman 1942; Ecology 23: 399-418), 6 estuarine food web models were analysed to assess the potential impact of multiple disturbances on the trophic state of food webs. The models described a Zostera noltii meadow and a bare sediment site in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, during 3 distinct time periods corresponding to (1) nutrient enrichment, (2) the implementation of mitigation measures, and (3) after a centenary flood.