Figure 3 LEE versus p-GaN thickness of the planar LED structure. LEE is plotted as a function of the p-GaN thickness for the TE (black dots) and TM (red dots) modes. Next, LEE for the nanorod LED structure is calculated. Figure 4 shows the electric field intensity distribution for the TE and TM modes. Here, the height and diameter of the rod are 1,000 and 200 nm, respectively. For the TE selleckchem mode, light emitted in the y direction can be extracted from the
nanorod and contribute to the large increase in LEE. However, light emitted in the z direction is either absorbed in the p-GaN layer or propagates in the substrate direction, which provides only a minor contribution to the LEE increase. For the TM mode, light is emitted only in the lateral directions and light propagation in the vertical direction is almost negligible as shown in Figure 4b. Therefore, the TM-polarized light can easily escape from the nanorod structure by overcoming
TIR, and consequently higher LEE than the TE mode is expected. Figure 4 Radiation patterns in the nanorod LED structure. Electric field intensity distribution of light emitted from the dipole source is shown for (a) the TE and (b) TM modes when the p-GaN thickness is 100 nm. The color scale bar represents relative strength of electric field intensity. Figure 5 shows the dependence of LEE on the diameter and height of nanorod LED structures. Here, the thickness of p-GaN layer is fixed at 100 nm. In Figure 5a, LEE is calculated as a function of the rod diameter from 40 to 500 nm when the rod height is 1,000 nm. LEE varies from 25% to 60% for the TE mode and from 40% to 70% for the TM mode as the rod diameter varies. check details When the nanorod LED structure replaces the unpatterned planar one, LEE is considerably increased. For the TM mode, LEE is increased from approximately 0.1% to >60%. As shown in Figure 5a, LEE Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK for the TM mode is higher than that for the TE mode in the nanorod LED structures. Therefore, when the TM mode emission is dominant in
the AlGaN QW of deep UV LEDs, the nanorod structure is expected to be a quite good solution for obtaining high LEE. Figure 5 LEE versus structural parameters of the nanorod LED structure. (a) LEE is plotted as a function of the diameter of a nanorod when the rod height is 1,000 nm. (b) LEE is plotted as a function of the height of a nanorod when the rod diameter is 260 nm. Results for the TE and TM modes are represented as black and red dots, respectively. In Figure 5a, some periodic behaviors of LEE with the rod diameter are observed for both the TE and TM modes. The periodic variation of LEE is basically related with resonant modes inside the nanorod structure. When a resonant mode is formed, light is confined within the nanorod structure and cannot be easily extracted, which results in the valley of LEE in Figure 5a. Therefore, it is NCT-501 important to control the rod diameter appropriately to obtain high LEE.