Typically, these nanostructures were directly grown on the ZnO seed-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates via a widely used low-temperature hydrothermal process. Although the synthesis conditions CP673451 datasheet were similar, different morphologies were obtained. The growth process is still not very clear up to now, which emphasizes the need for further systematic investigation of the formation mechanism. In terms of high efficient DSSCs, if we can rationally design a composite structure composed of microflowers and short nanorod
arrays, utilizing the synergistic effect of high light harvesting and fast electron transport, the conversion efficiency of DSSCs may be largely improved compared with photoanodes using nanorod arrays or microflowers alone. In this paper, we demonstrated a novel structure transition from ZnO nanorod arrays to microflowers on nanorod arrays grown on FTO substrates by simply controlling the reaction time. A local dissolution-driven growth mechanism was proposed based on our systematic
observation. Considering the respective advantage of nanorod arrays and branched microflowers in the electron transport and light harvesting, we used their synergistic effects in photoanodes to largely improve SBE-��-CD the efficiency of light harvesting without sacrificing fast electron transport, exhibiting a markedly enhanced power conversion efficiency of 0.92%, which corresponds to an approximately 124% increase as compared to low efficiency of 0.41% for the DSSCs fabricated Vitamin B12 using simple ZnO nanorod arrays. Methods ZnO nanostructures were grown by a two-step process. First, the ZnO seed layer was formed by spin coating of 5-mM zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 · 2H2O, 98%, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) ethanol solution onto the FTO substrate, followed by annealing at 400°C for 60 min. ZnO nanostructures were prepared on FTO glass in
a 150-ml solution mixture of 25-mM zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2 · 6H2O, Aldrich, 98%), 25-mM hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, Aldrich, 99%) and 2-mM ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, Aldrich, 28%) at 90°C for 30 min to 5 h. FTO substrate with the ZnO seed layer was floated face-down in a closed bottle. Upon completion of the reaction, the substrate was rinsed with deionized water and dried at 60°C overnight and then heated at 420°C for 120 min. The prepared ZnO nanostructured electrodes were immersed in an ethanol solution containing 0.5 mM of N719 dye (cisbis(isothiocyanato) bis (2,2′-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium(II)) (Solaronix) at 50°C for 60 min, followed by rinsing in ethanol to remove any dye absorbed physically and drying in air. Each sensitized see more electrode was sealed against a counter electrode. The counter electrode was prepared by spreading a droplet of 0.5 mM of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6 · 6H2O, Aldrich, 99.