One day after the end of irradiations, the animals were killed an

One day after the end of irradiations, the animals were killed and the corneas examined immunohistochemically for the expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase), pro-oxidant xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase, proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-8), MK-1775 matrix

metalloproteinase-9 and heat shock protein 70.\n\nAfter buffered saline treatment during UVB irradiation, an antioxidant/pro-oxidant imbalance appeared in the corneal epithelium: The expression of antioxidant enzymes was highly reduced, whereas the expression of pro-oxidant xanthine oxidase was increased. The pronounced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase and heat shock protein 70 was found in the UVB-irradiated corneal epithelium. Trehalose application significantly suppressed all the above-mentioned UVB-induced corneal disturbances.\n\nTrehalose favorably influenced the oxidative damage of the cornea caused by UVB rays. Trehalose suppressed proinflammatory cytokine induction. It is suggested that suppression of proinflammatory cytokines contributed strongly to reduced matrix metalloproteinase and xanthine oxidase expression in the UVB-irradiated corneal epithelium and to the decreased development of an antioxidant/pro-oxidant imbalance. The overexpression of heat shock protein 70 found in UVB-irradiated

cornea after buffered saline treatment SRT2104 was reduced after trehalose application.”
“The authors summarize the pathologic features of endometrial adenocarcinoma in rabbits. Clinicopathological case, macroscopic, microscopic recordings illustrate the literature review. They diagnosed solid/tubular histological type endometrial adenocarcinoma with peritoneal, hepatic, intrasplenic

and pulmonary metastases in a six-year old female rabbit. The primary uterine malignoma showed pancytokeratin positivity and 28% Ki-67 labelling index.”
“The construction of adequate confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage designs remains an area of ongoing research. We propose a conditional likelihood-based approach to construct a Wald confidence interval and two confidence intervals based on inverting the likelihood ratio test, one of them using first-order inference methods and the second one using higher order inference methods. The coverage KPT-8602 inhibitor probabilities of these confidence intervals, and also the average bias and mean square error of the corresponding point estimates, compare favorably with other available techniques. A small simulation study is used to evaluate the performance of the new methods. We investigate other extensions of practical interest for normal endpoints and illustrate them using real data, including the selection of more than one treatment for the second stage, selection rules based on both efficacy and safety endpoints, and the inclusion of a control/placebo arm.

This study also demonstrates that it is possible to draw sound co

This study also demonstrates that it is possible to draw sound conclusions from comparing complex and similar unassembled metagenomes at the functional level, even with very low sequence coverage.”
“Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS

through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e. g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C GW2580 includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages).\n\nMethods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel.

A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: selleck products the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity.\n\nResults: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most

items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains.\n\nConclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool MX69 solubility dmso which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.”
“objective: Despite delirium being common in older hospitalized people, little is known about its management. The aims of this study are (1) to describe the pharmacological management of delirium in an acute care setting as a baseline measure prior to the implementation of newly developed Australian guidelines; and (2) to determine what areas of delirium pharmacological management need to be targeted for future practical guideline implementation and quality improvement activities.\n\nMethods: A medical record audit was conducted using a structured audit form.

05) Floating ability for 12 h of the optimized FAMC9 was visuall

05). Floating ability for 12 h of the optimized FAMC9 was visually examined during the in vitro release studies that showed maximal drug release with zero-order

kinetics (r(2)=0.9991). Acalabrutinib Thus, a novel osmotically regulated floating capsular system was developed for site-specific delivery of RHCl.”
“OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of inpatient hysterectomy and explore changes in the use of various routes of hysterectomy and patterns of referral.\n\nMETHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify all women aged 18 years or older who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. Weighted estimates of national trends were calculated and the number of procedures performed estimated. Trends in hospital volume and across hospital characteristics were examined.\n\nRESULTS: After weighting, we identified a total 7,438,452 women who underwent inpatient hysterectomy between 1998 and 2010. The number of hysterectomies performed annually rose from 543,812 in 1998 to a peak of 681,234 in 2002; it

then declined find more consistently annually and reached 433,621 cases in 2010. Overall, 247,973 (36.4%) fewer hysterectomies were performed in 2010 compared with 2002. From 2002 to 2010 the number of hysterectomies performed for each of the following indications declined: leiomyoma (247.6%), abnormal bleeding (228.9%), benign ovarian mass (263.1%), endometriosis (265.3%), and pelvic organ prolapse (239.4%). The median hospital case volume decreased from 83 procedures per year in 2002 MLN4924 to 50 cases per year in 2010 (P<.001).\n\nCONCLUSION: The number of inpatient hysterectomies performed in the United States has declined substantially over the past decade. The median number of hysterectomies per hospital has declined likewise by more than 40%.”
“The bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus in many countries. Despite the fact that many characteristics of the disease are known, the rate of multiplication of the bacterium within an infected tree is still poorly understood. To study this feature, we used the quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assay to follow and to quantify the multiplication

of CLas in grafted infected young sweet orange plants. The rate of infection by grafting reached 100% at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi) showing that grafting could easily transmit CLas. A well-adjusted linear regression equation describing the bacterial growth in planta was obtained independently with measurements taken using repeated sampling in the same plant or different plants through the analysed period. The bacterial population, measured as copy number (CN) of the 16S rDNA target gene g(-1) of tissue, increased 10,000 times from 10(3) at 30 dpi to approximately 10(8) CN at 240 dpi indicating that CLas multiplication was fastest in young citrus plants. We observed a direct relationship between the concentration of pathogen and the expression of symptoms.

They then underwent a 30-minute training session using an assessm

They then underwent a 30-minute training session using an assessment tool

with embedded videos to anchor rating scores for 10 components of coronary artery anastomosis. Afterward, they evaluated 2 videos of a different student and resident performing the task. Components were scored on a 1 to 5 Likert scale, yielding an average composite score. Inter-rater reliabilities of component and composite scores were assessed using intraclass Selleckchem HIF inhibitor correlation coefficients (ICCs) and overall pass/fail ratings with kappa. Results: All components of the assessment tool exhibited improvement in reliability, with 4 (bite, needle holder use, needle angles, and hand mechanics) improving the most from poor (ICC range, 0.09-0.48) to strong (ICC range, 0.80-0.90) agreement. After training, inter-rater reliabilities for composite scores improved from

moderate Compound Library (ICC, 0.76) to strong (ICC, 0.90) agreement, and for overall pass/fail ratings, from poor (kappa = 0.20) to moderate (kappa = 0.78) agreement. Conclusions: Focused, video-based anchor training facilitates greater inter-rater reliability in the objective assessment of simulated coronary anastomoses. Among raters with less teaching experience, such training may be needed before objective evaluation of technical skills.”
“Seed agglomeration is a coating technology with the purpose to sow multiple seeds of the same seed lot, or multiple seeds of different seed lots, varieties or species. The objective of 17DMAG order this study was to develop agglomeration technology by producing single agglomerates or pellets using lettuce and tomato as model vegetable crop seeds. Physical properties of dry and wet pellets were measured and seedling emergence assessed. Pellets were formed by

a molding technique with a mixture of filler, binder, and seeds. Diatomaceous earth (DE) was used as the filler, and two binders were tested: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and a commercial organic binder. Each binder solution was mixed with DE, and seeds were added during the agglomeration process. Oval and cylindrical pellets were molded with known compression forces. Cylindrical pellet strength increased, as PVA binder concentration increased from 8% to 16% and pellet strength was greater for pellets produced with 3 kg than with 1 kg compression. The percent seedling emergence and speed of emergence were not affected by a compression force of 1 kg and 3 kg for PVA-pelleted lettuce and tomato, respectively compared to the non-pelleted control. Cylindrical pellets formed using the commercial organic binder at 1 and 3 kg force without lecithin showed significantly less seedling emergence and speed of emergence for lettuce seed; no significant differences were observed for tomato seed.

Double staining experiments combined with confocal


Double staining experiments combined with confocal

microscopy confirmed the neuronal expression but also suggested a preferential postsynaptic localization of synaptic MCT2 expression. A few astrocytes in the grey matter appeared to exhibit MCT2 labelling but at low levels. Electron microscopy revealed strong MCT2 expression at asymmetric synapses in the postsynaptic density and also within the spine head but not in the presynaptic terminal. These data not only demonstrate neuronal MCT2 expression in human, but since a portion of it exhibits a distinct synaptic localization, it further supports a putative role for MCT2 in adjustment Z-DEVD-FMK concentration of energy supply to levels of activity. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In vivo niche plays an important role in determining the fate of implanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by directing committed differentiation. An inappropriate in vivo niche can also alter desired ultimate fate of exogenous MSCs even they are in vitro induced to express a specific phenotype before in vivo implantation. Studies have shown that in vitro chondrogenically differentiated MSCs are apt to lose

their phenotype and fail to form stable cartilage in subcutaneous environment. We hypothesized that failure of maintaining the phenotype of induced MSCs in subcutaneous environment is due to the insufficient chondrogenic differentiation in vitro and fully differentiated MSCs can retain their chondrocyte-like phenotype and form stable ectopic cartilage. To test this hypothesis, extended in vitro chondrogenic induction and cartilage formation were carried out before implantation. Human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) were seeded onto polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid scaffolds. The cell-scaffold constructs were chondrogenically induced from 4 to 12 weeks for in vitro chondrogenesis, and then implanted subcutaneously

into nude mice for 12 or 24 weeks. The engineered cartilages were evaluated by gross view, glycosaminoglycan content measurement, and histological staining before and after implantation. Histological examination AG-120 purchase showed typical cartilage structure formation after 8 weeks of induction in vitro. However, part of the constructs became ossified after implantation when in vitro induction lasted 8 weeks or less time. In contrast, those induced for 12 weeks in vitro could retain their cartilage structure after in vivo implantation. These results indicate that a fully differentiated stage achieved by extended chondrogenic induction in vitro is necessary for hBMSCs to form stable ectopic chondrogenesis in vivo. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Most asthmatic patients with moderate to severe disease can be satisfactorily managed with a combination of inhaled corticosteroids and beta(2)-agonists.

“Dimensionality reduction is a commonly used tool in machi

“Dimensionality reduction is a commonly used tool in machine learning, especially when dealing with high dimensional data. We consider semi-supervised graph based dimensionality reduction in this paper, and a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm called constrained

Laplacian Eigenmap (CLE) is proposed. Suppose the data set contains r classes, and for each class we have some labeled points. CLE maps each data point into r different lines, and each map i tries to separate points belonging to class i from others by using label information. CLE constrains the solution space of Laplacian Eigenmap only to contain embedding results that are consistent with the labels. Then, each point is represented as a r-dimensional vector. Labeled points belonging to the same class are merged together, labeled points belonging to BIX 01294 inhibitor different classes are separated, and CX-6258 price similar points are close to one another. We perform semi-supervised document clustering using CLE on two standard corpora. Experimental results show that CLE is very effective. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Punishment is a potential mechanism to stabilise cooperation between

self-regarding agents. Theoretical and empirical studies on the importance of a punitive reputation have yielded conflicting results. Here, we propose that a variety of factors interact to explain why a punitive reputation is sometimes beneficial and sometimes harmful. We predict that benefits are most likely to occur in forced play scenarios and in situations where punishment is the only means to convey an individual’s cooperative intent and willingness to uphold fairness norms. By contrast, if partner choice is possible and an individual’s cooperative intent can be inferred directly, then individuals with a nonpunishing

cooperative reputation should typically be preferred over punishing cooperators.”
“Objective: To analyze the role of the antiphospholipid autoantibodies (aPL) on the neuropsychological deficits in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, comparing groups of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; n=15), SLE with aPL 5-Fluoracil cost (n=12), and SLE without aPL (n=27), and a healthy control group (n=31). Methods: Patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology SLE classification criteria or the Sydney criteria for APS. All participants were woman, and groups were matched on age and education. A standardized cognitive examination classified patients as cognitively declined or impaired according to the American College of Rheumatology. Results: Differences between the groups were found in all of the studied variables, comprising attention and executive functions (sustained and selective attention, fluency, and inhibition), and memory (verbal and visual).

20 % yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productiv

20 % yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process

and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity CP-868596 molecular weight for 92.75 % and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K-I and K-s values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).”
“IMPORTANCE In phase 2 studies, evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, reduced LDL-C levels in patients receiving statin therapy. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of evolocumab when used in combination with a moderate-vs high-intensity

statin. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Phase 3, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-and ezetimibe-controlled study conducted between January and December of 2013 in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia at 198 sites in 17 countries. INTERVENTIONS Patients (n = 2067) were randomized to 1 of 24 treatment groups in 2 steps. DAPT purchase Patients were initially randomized to a daily, moderate-intensity (atorvastatin [10 mg], simvastatin [40mg], or rosuvastatin [5 mg]) or high-intensity (atorvastatin [80 mg], rosuvastatin [40mg]) statin. After a 4-week lipid-stabilization period, patients (n = 1899) were randomized to compare evolocumab (140 mg every

2 weeks or 420mg monthly) with placebo (every 2 weeks or monthly) or ezetimibe (10 mg or placebo daily; atorvastatin patients only) when added to statin therapies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Percent change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein ON-01910 cost cholesterol (LDL-C) level at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 and at week 12. RESULTS Evolocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 66%(95% CI, 58% to 73%) to 75%(95% CI, 65% to 84%) (every 2weeks) and by 63%(95% CI, 54% to 71%) to 75%(95% CI, 67% to 83%) (monthly) vs placebo at the mean of weeks 10 and 12 in the moderate-and high-intensity statin-treated groups; the LDL-C reductions at week 12 were comparable. For moderate-intensity statin groups, evolocumab every 2weeks reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 115 to 124mg/ dL to an on-treatment mean of 39 to 49mg/dL; monthly evolocumab reduced LDL-C from a baseline mean of 123 to 126mg/dL to an on-treatment mean of 43 to 48mg/dL.

(c) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Studies of the

(c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Studies of the possibility of regulating the regenerative and reparative processes in pathologically modified tissues are reviewed. A ready cell system providing the realization of reparative and regenerative processes in all organs (cell sources of regeneration) exists in all organisms. The authors

suggest that active bioregulators presented in this paper are involved in the mechanisms of tissue regeneration by modulating the cell sources of regeneration.”
“A rearrangement of genera and subgenera in the water mite family Mideopsidae is proposed, resulting in the following WH-4-023 in vivo changes: Mideopsellinae Lundblad, 1937 and Phreatomideopsinae Schwoerbel, 1986 are synonymized with Mideopsidae Koenike, 1910; Djeboa K. Viets, 1911, Mideopsides Lundblad, 1943, Neoxystonotus Lundblad, 1927, Octomideopsis K. Viets, 1931 and Xystonotus Wolcott, 1900 are redefined and proposed as distinct genera. A global key for the genera of the family is given.\n\nNew records of water mites of the genus Djeboa K. Viets, 1911, Xystonotus Wolcott, 1900 and Mideopsellides K.O. Viets, 1962 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Mideopsidae) from the Afrotropical region are presented. Twenty species new to science are described, i.e., CHIR98014 datasheet Djeboa amendano (Madagascar), D. amethystica (Madagascar), D. angulipalpis (Madagascar), D. coelestinica

(Madagascar), D. crocodilorum (South Africa), D. curtipalpis (Ghana), Djeboa depressa(Cote d’Ivoire), D. dinosaurophila (South Africa), D. elephantina (Cote d’Ivoire), D. ghanaensis (Ghana), D. gledhilli (Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana), D. globulipalpis (South Africa, Ghana), D. granatica (Madagascar),

D. mandena buy Taselisib (Madagascar), D. maromandia (Madagascar), D. nzia (Cote d’Ivoire), D. turmalinica (Madagascar), D. vanilla (Madagascar), D. wondergemi (Ghana) and Xystonotus madagascariensis (Madagascar); a first description of the male is given for Djeboa bimaculata (Cook, 1966). A key for all species of the Djeboa is presented.”
“Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH(2) and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were quite different.

Aim of this study is to separate major analgesic fraction from ve

Aim of this study is to separate major analgesic fraction from venom of A.

halys Pallas, and to reveal its biochemical and pharmacological properties. Three steps with ion exchange column first and molecular sieve columns next were used to separate and purify the fractions of venom. Analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate tests and writhing tests in mice. The molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point, amino acid sequence, purity were respectively determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, Edman degradation and HPLC. The dependence and tolerance were observed SU5402 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor by withdrawal test in rats, and analgesic effects were observed in mice during 7 days administration. Fourteen fractions were obtained by separation; the best analgesic fraction named Pallanalgesin was selected by ED50 and LD50. It had single band in electrophoresis, relative purity 92.16 %, MW 16.6

kDa, isoelectric point 8.8, and former sequence of ten amino acids H-L-L-Q-F-R-K-M-I-K. It showed significant analgesic effect without 4SC-202 molecular weight tolerance and dependence. As a novel analgesic, Pallanalgesin has been found to explain the function of venom of A. halys Pallas on severe pain control in traditional uses.”
“Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate if elevated C reactive protein (CRP) was related to the stroke severity, and to analyze its different distribution in stroke subtypes. Methods: 316 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) were enrolled and had CRP determinations; they were dichotomized as<7 or >= 7mg/L according to the previous report. 128 patients with transient ischemic attack who also had CRP measurements were selected as controls. A possible level-risk relationship AZD2014 in vitro between elevated CRP and NIHSS, which considered relatively severe illness

as a value >= 8, was studied within the AIS group. Results: CRP was elevated in 21% of the AIS compared to 4% in the control group (p = 0.000). Within the AIS group, patients with CRP levels >= 7ing/L had a significantly increased risk of severe stroke (OR 3.33, 95% Cl 1.84-6.00, p =0.00). In subtype stroke, the highest rate of elevated CRP and N1HSS were in those with cardioembolic stroke (CE) using TOAST classification, total anterior circulation infarction (TACI) of OCSP classification and large volume infarction (LVI) of Adams classification; the odds ratio(OR) between elevated CRP and NIHSS was 6.14 (95% CI 1.43-26.44) in CE, 1.714 (95% CI 1.30-2.26) in TACI, 2.32(95% CI 1.08-4.99) in LVI, and the p value were all below 0.05. Conclusion: Elevated CRP level can reflect the severity of AIS, which was association with stroke subtype.”
“The mechanisms by which the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis evades innate immunity are not well defined. We have identified a gene with homology to Escherichia coli mviN, a putative lipid II flippase, which F.

Increased bacterial genome size (or gene number) appears to rely

Increased bacterial genome size (or gene number) appears to rely on increased genomic GC content; AZD6738 chemical structure however, it is unclear whether the changes are directly related to certain environmental pressures. Certain environmental and bacteriological features are related to GC content variation, but their trends are more obvious when analyzed under the dnaE-based grouping scheme. Most terrestrial, plant-associated, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are members of the dnaE1|dnaE2 group, whereas

most pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria in insects, and those dwelling in aquatic environments, are largely members of the dnaE1|polV group.\n\nConclusion: Our studies provide several lines of evidence indicating that DNA polymerase III a subunit and its isoforms participating in either replication (such as polC) or SOS mutagenesis/translesion synthesis (such as dnaE2), play dominant roles in determining GC variability. Other environmental or bacteriological factors, such as genome size, temperature, oxygen requirement, and habitat, either play subsidiary roles or rely indirectly buy Lapatinib on different mutator genes to fine-tune the GC content. These results provide a comprehensive insight into mechanisms of GC content variation and the robustness of eubacterial genomes in adapting their ever-changing environments over

billions of years.”
“OBJECTIVE: Fenestration of internal carotid artery (ICA) is extremely rare and may be associated with aneurysms arising from the fenestrated segment. Here we report two cases with successful surgical clipping of associated saccular aneurysms, and we systematically review the 12 previously reported cases.\n\nMETHODS: In one case of 39-year-old female patient, the aneurysm and fenestration were found incidentally in the course of a workup for headaches and a thyroid nodule. In the second case, a 32-year-old female patient,

the aneurysm was associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage in the setting of suspected postpartum eclampsia. In both instances the fenestration involved the supraclinoid ICA, and the aneurysm arose from the duplicated segment proximal to the origin of the posterior communicating Tubastatin A Epigenetics inhibitor artery. The aneurysms were more proximal than typical posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and fenestration was suspected by rotational three-dimensional angiography, and confirmed at surgery.\n\nRESULTS: In both instances the aneurysm was approached via an extended pterional craniotomy. In one case, partial anterior clinoidectomy was necessary, along with decompression of the optic nerve canal for optimal exposure of the aneurysm neck. Clip reconstruction was successful, obliterating the aneurysm and preserving ICA patency.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: ICA fenestration should be considered when one analyzes ventral supraclinoid ICA aneurysms. In these and other reported cases, aneurysm is generally amenable to surgical clipping despite broad neck incorporating the fenestrated arterial segment.